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Access to Trade and Growth of Women ’ s SMEs in APEC Developing Economies. Indonesia ∙ Malaysia ∙ Philippines ∙ Thailand. Kate Bollinger WEP Workshop 2014 Ubud, Bali. Presentation Outline. Research Purpose and Partnership Overview and Methodology F indings Recommendations.

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access to trade and growth of women s smes in apec developing economies

Access to Trade and Growth of Women’s SMEs in APEC Developing Economies

Indonesia ∙ Malaysia ∙ Philippines ∙ Thailand

Kate Bollinger

WEP Workshop 2014

Ubud, Bali

presentation outline
Presentation Outline
  • Research Purpose and Partnership
  • Overview and Methodology
  • Findings
  • Recommendations
purpose and partnership with apec
Purpose and Partnership with APEC
  • It is increasingly recognized that women’s full and equal participation in business has important repercussions for domestic and regional economies.
  • Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) commissioned a research study to increase understanding of the factors that encourage or deter access to trade and growth for women’s SMEs in:
      • Malaysia
      • The Philippines
      • Thailand
  • TAF extended the research to Indonesia
research overview
Research Overview
  • Research examined a range of micro-economic factors that affect women’s ability to start and grow SMEs in the study economies:
    • Economic and Financial Barriers
    • Government and Policy Barriers
    • Social Environment, Support Systems and Opportunities for Women
research methodology
Research Methodology

Quantitative research

Survey questionnaire

  • Philippines
  • 100 SMEs
  • 50 exporting SMEs
  • ~50% female, ~50% male
  • Area-based quota sampling & simple random sampling
  • Indonesia
  • 108 SMEs
  • 42 exporting SMEs
  • ~50% female, ~50% male
  • Area-based quota sampling & simple random sampling
  • Malaysia
  • 92 SMEs
  • 55 exporting SMEs
  • ~50% female, ~50% male
  • Area-based quota sampling
  • Thailand
  • 80 SMEs
  • 56 exporting SMEs
  • ~50% female, ~50% male
  • Stratified random sampling

Qualitative research

  • All Study Economies
  • Semi-structured interviews
  • Focus group discussions
  • Case studies of female entrepreneurs
finance loans
Finance & Loans

Complexity of the loan application process is a key problem for women

owned SMEs across all countries surveyed.

Most Challenging Part of The Loan Process: Malaysia, the Philippines and Thailand

employee hiring and training
Employee Hiring and Training
  • Among women and men business owners employee hiring and training was cited as their primary business challenge.

Primary Business Challenge: All SMEs

employee hiring and training1
Employee Hiring and Training
  • Women owners hire more women than men owners.

Average Firm Size by Frequency of Interactions with Formal Networks

networks
Networks

Networks are recognized as important to success in business, but women-owned firms lag in formal networking.

Frequency of Interaction with Formal Business Associations: All SMEs

technology
Technology

Women firm owners lag behind men in their knowledge and use of technology

Awareness of Technologies that Would Make Business More Profitable

corruption
Corruption
  • Informal payments are a problem for all business owners, especially in the Philippines.

Perceptions of Severity of Informal Payments Problem: By APEC Economy

government support
Government Support

How Supportive is Government of Businesses Like Yours?: All SMEs Malaysia

Women business owners in Malaysia and Thailand perceived low levels of government support.

social support role models mentors
Social Support: Role Models & Mentors
  • 75% of all business owners in the study had a relative who ran their own business. Women owners are much more likely than men to have a female relative in business.

Do You Have a Female Relative in Business?

key recommendations
Key Recommendations
  • Finance and Loans:
  • Work with the private sector, including SME business associations and networks, to support potential women entrepreneurs on financial literacy and the loan application process.
  • Networks:
  • Support the capacity of business associations to reach women-owned firms and create programs to address their needs.
  • Technology:
  • Develop training programs to help women business owners more effectively use technology appropriate for their particular business.
key recommendations1
Key Recommendations
  • Government Support:
  • Build opportunities for more constructive interaction between business women and the public sector through activities such as public-private dialogues and trade fairs.
  • Social Support:
  • Mentorship programs can pair women with role models to help that start their own business and navigate social constraints.
areas of research focus
Areas of Research Focus
  • Economic and Financial Barriers
    • Access to finance: interest rates, loan applications, collateral requirements
    • Operational: employee hiring and training, turnover, business technologies
    • Networks: business associations, informal networks
  • Government and Policy Barriers
    • Perceptions of government
    • Access to business information from government
    • Government services
    • Corruption/informal payments
    • Crime and safety
  • Social Support Barriers
    • Domestic responsibilities
    • Role models: relatives in business, mentors
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