This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 76

, - . PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 99 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

????? ????????????? ? ??. ?????? 1.1. ?????????? ??????? ???. ???????? ???????, ???????? ?????_????????, ???, ??????, ?????1 ?????? ?.?. 478 ???????????? ???.2 ?????? ?.?. 789 ??????????? ???.3 ?????? ?.?. 278 ???????????? ???.4 ??????? ?.?. 789 ???????????? ???.????????????????.. .

Download Presentation

, - .

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


946957

2009


946957

() , - .

( )


946957

1.1. . , _, , ,

1 .. 478 .

2 .. 789 .

3 .. 278 .

4 .. 789 .

..


946957

, .

  • (, , )


946957

. .

| |


946957

1.2. , . , . , .

: =1 U 2= {, _, ,, , }


946957

  • ;

  • ;

  • ( ) ;

  • ;

  • ;

  • ;

  • ;

  • ;

  • .


946957

,

  • ( )

  • ( )


2 2 1

2. . 2.1 .


2 2 2

2. . 2.2 - .

  • :

    - . -

    ---

    (,)

    ( )

    ( __)


2 2 2 c

2. . 2.2 - c .

:

  • ,

  • 7+/-2

  • ,

    : , ( ), ( ).


946957

2.1. : , :. . .

:

  • (PN,GOR,ST,DN)

  • (DN,DIM,CENA,KOL)

  • (PIM,ZN,GOR,DIM)


946957

2.1. : , :. . .


946957

2.1. : , :. . .


946957

2.1. : , :. . .

.


946957

2.3 -

:

  • ;

  • ;

  • .


946957

2.2<> .

:

PPD( PN, PIM, ST, GOR, DN, DIM, CENA, KOL)

p1 . 80 d1 80 100

p1 . 80 d2 100 150

p2. 40 d1 80 50

p2 . 40 d2 100 100

p3. 100 d2 100 200

Post(PN, PIM, ST, GOR) Det(DN,DIM,CENA) PD(PN,DN,KOL)

p1 . 80 d1 80 p1 d1 100

p2 . 40 d2 100 p1 d2 150

p3 100 p2 d1 50

p2 d2 100

p3 d2 200


946957

2.2<> .

:

d1 80 d2 100

| |

p1 . 80 100 p1 . 80 150

p2 . 40 50 p2 . 40 100

p3 100 200


946957

2.2<> .

:


946957

:

DN? - PN=p2;

PN? DN=d1

, (, )

(p4,,100,)


946957

3.


946957


946957

  • -

  • -


946957


946957


946957


946957


946957

+


946957


946957


946957

-

R = A B C S = D E

1 2 3 3 1

4 5 6 6 2

7 8 9

A B C D E

1 2 3 3 1

1 2 3 6 2

4 5 6 6 2


946957

.


946957

R=XY, ..

r(R)= X Y Z

a b c

m b b

a b d

r(R)= PN, DN, KOL, GOR

p1 d1 100

p2 d2 150

p2 d1 50

p2 d2 100

p3 d2 200

X={PN,DN}, Y={Kol}.Y / ?


946957

  • 1. ,

    X={A,B} ,Y={A}:

  • 2. ,

  • 3. ,

  • 4. ,

  • 5. ,

    :

    . :

    .


946957

. , (, ,_, _)

R()= , , ,

83 10.08 10:15

281 10.08 15:30

301 10.08 18:10

83 11.08 10:15

.


946957

:

.

, F, F, .

-

.

A, X(X A) F.


946957

X+ F.

:

  • . .

  • .

    : :

    :

    1. X(0) X;

    2. X(j+1) - X(j) , , F

    3. X(s) =X(s+1)

    . U={A,B,C,D,E,H,G} F={A-D,AB-DE,CE-G,E-H}. X=AB


946957

  • :. R=ABCDE, F={A-C,B-C,C-D, DE-C, CE-A}. . , , , :1) - AiAj:

    AiAj .

    2) , AiAj ;

    3) , AiAjAs

    4).


946957

, :

  • , .

  • - .

    , .

    :

  • G+.

  • .

    . : F={A-BC,A-D,CD-E}, G={A-BCE, A-BD, CD-E}


946957

, j=1n, .

.


946957

PPD( PN, PIM, ST, GOR, DN, DIM, CENA, KOL)

p1 . 80 d1 80 100

p1 . 80 d2 100 150

p2. 40 d1 80 50

p2 . 40 d2 100 100

p3. 100 d2 100 200

:

.

.

.

.


946957

:

.( ).

.


946957

. R=ABC- , F={A->B}. .

r={AB,AC} , :

r(R)=A B C AB(r)= A B AC(r)= A C

a b c a b a c

d b e d b d e

AB(r)* AC(r)= AB(r).A B AC(r).A C

a b a c

a b d e

d b a c

d b d e

AB(r)><AAC(r)=A B C = r(R)

a b c

d b e


946957

. r={R1,R2}- R , F-- , R, F, :

. R=ABC F={A->B}

r={AB,AC}, r={AB,BC}

,

. R=ABCDEFPS F={B->C, D->EF, B->PS, A->CDPS,AP-S}. r={AB, ACDPS, BCPS, DEF} R ?

. R=ABCDEKM F={A->BC, A->D, D->EK, AD->M,M->AK}. r={ADME, EKC, ACE, DEB} R ?


946957

.

F , Z(R), , .

. U={A,B,C} F={A->B, B->C} nAB(F)={A->B}, nAC(F)={A->C}.

R F, R, , F Ri, i=1,2k, F:

. U={A,B,C} F={A->B, B->C}. r={AB,BC} , r={AB,AC} .


946957

.

:

  • ;

  • .

    . R=ABCDEM F={A->B,CD->A, CB->D, AE->M, CE->D}. r={R1,R2}, R1=A, R2=ABCDE. . ?

    . R=ABCDEKX F={A->BC,A->D, C->B, D->EK, AD->X, X->AK, E->K,A->K}. r={ADEX, EKC,ACEK,DEBC}. ?


946957

.


946957

F F 1, R :

  • ,

  • ,

  • ;

  • ;

  • .

    PPD( PN, ST, GORDN KOL) PPD( PN, ST, GORDN KOL)

    p1 80 d1 100p1 80 d1 100

    - - - d2 100 p1 80 d2 100

    p2 40 d1300p2 40 d1300

    - - - d240p1 80 d240

    p3 80 d2 200 p3 80 d2 200

    p3100 d2 150 p3100 d2 150

    1:

  • (, , )


946957

1+ R.

r(R11) = PN ST GOR r(R2)= PN DN KOL

p1 80 p1 d1 100

p2 40 p1 d2 100

p3 80 p2 d1 300

p3 80 p2 d1 40

p3 d2 200

p4 d2 150

F1={PN->GOR, GOR->ST, PN->ST}

F2={(PN,DN)->KOL}


946957

2+ , R, ( ).

r(R11) = PN GOR r(R12)= GOR ST

p1 80

p2 40

p3 100

p4


946957

-()

R F , (X->A) F, A F, (, ) .


946957

4. + , , .

5. +


946957


946957

  • ER-


946957

ER-. .

ER - :

  • ER ;

  • ER , ER .


946957

ER-.

  • , . , .

  • ER

  • . .

  • .

  • . , , .

  • .


1 1 1

1. 1 : 1 :


2 1 1

2. 1 : 1 : .


3 1 1

3. 1 : 1 :


3 1 11

3. 1 : 1 :


4 1 1

4. 1 : : 1 -

  • ( ) . 1- - .

    1 - 1 () (), 2 1- 2, . 4 :

  • R1(1, 2, . . .)

  • R2(2, . . .)


5 1 1

5. 1 : : 1 :

, 1 1- 1 , () , 2 - 2, (). :

R1(1, . . .)

R2(2, . . .)

R3(2, 1, . . .)


946957

6. :

  • . , . - ( ).


946957

-

R1 ( , . . .)

R2 ( , . . .)

R3 (_ , . . .)

R4 ( , , _ , . . .)


946957

7

  • - + 1 , , , . .

R1 ( , . . .)

R2 ( , . . .)

R3 (_ , . . .)

R4 ( , , _ , . . .)

=>R4 ( , _, , . . .)


946957

8.

  • , , , . , . , , , .


946957


946957

1.

_. :

  • (PN, . . .)

  • (DN, . . .)

  • (GOR, . . .)

  • (ST, . . .)

    :

  • _

  • __


946957

2.

  • (, ) (, ) ( 6)

  • (, )_ (1,) ( 4)

  • (, ) __ (1, ) ( 4)

  • (, ) (1, ) ( 4)


946957

3.

( 6):

  • (PN, . . .)

  • (DN, . . .)

  • _ (PN, DN, . . .)

    _ ( 4):

  • (PN, GOR, . . .). GOR 4 .

  • (GOR, . . .)

    ( 4):

  • (GOR, ST, . . .). ST 4 .

  • (ST, . . .)

  • __ ( 4):

  • (PN, GOR, ST, . . .) .

    GOR , ST

  • (ST, . . .)


946957

4. .

  • (PN, PIM, GOR, ST), PIM

  • (DN, DIM, CENA), DIM CENA

  • _ (PN, DN, KOL), KOL

  • (GOR, ST)

  • (ST)


946957

5. .

:

= {PN PIM, PN GOR, PN ST, GOR ST}. , PN ST PN GOR GOR ST.

3. ?

(PN, PIM, GOR) (GOR, ST).

. -

.

:

  • (PN, PIM, GOR)

  • (DN, DIM, CENA)

  • (PN, DN, KOL)

  • (GOR, ST)

    .


946957

5.

1. .

:.

: (Client), (Zakaz), (Car), (Worker), (Tip).

: (Code_cl), (Name_cl), (Adress_cl), (Teleph_cl), (Fax_cl), (INN_cl), (Code_w), (F_w), (N_w), (O_w), (Year_w), (Raz_w), (St_w), (Code_c), (Marka_c), (GN_c), (Year_c), (Dwig_c), (Color_c), (Code_tip), (Tip), (Code_z), (Date_z), (Adrd_z).

Client (Code_cl, )

Car (Code_c, )

Worker (Code_w, )

Tip (Code_tip, )

Zakaz (Code_z, )

(1, )(, ) ( 4)

(, ) (1,) ( 4)

(, )1 (, ) ( 6)

(, )2 (, ) ( 6)

(, ) (, ) ( 6)


946957

2. ER- .


946957

3. .

( 4) :

Client (Code_cl, )

Zakaz (Code_z, Code_cl, )

( 4) :

Tip (Code_tip, )

Car (Code_c, Code_tip, )

1 ( 6) :

Car (Code_c, Code_tip, )

Zakaz (Code_z, Code_cl, )

Zakaz_Car (Code_z, Code_c, )

2 ( 6) :

Worker (Code_w, )

Zakaz (Code_z, Code_cl, )

Zakaz_Worker (Code_z, Code_w, )

( 6) :

Worker (Code_w, )

Car (Code_c, Code_tip, )

Car_Worker (Code_c, Code_w, )


946957

4 5. .

Client (Code_cl, Name_cl, Adress_cl, Teleph_cl, Fax_cl, INN_cl)

Worker (Code_w, F_w, N_w, O_w, Year_w, Raz_w, St_w)

Car (Code_c, Code_tip, Marka_c, GN_c, Year_c, Dwig_c, Color_c)

Tip (Code_tip, Tip)

Car_Worker (Code_c, Code_w)

Zakaz (Code_z, Code_cl, Date_z, Adrd_z)

Zakaz_Car (Code_z, Code_c)

Zakaz_Worker (Code_z, Code_w)


  • Login