energy flow in an ecosystem
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Energy Flow in an Ecosystem. Biomass. The total mass of living plants, animals, fungi and bacteria in a given area. Organisms have special roles, or niches, in the ecosystem in which they live. Within its niche, every organism interacts with that ecosystem in two ways:

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Presentation Transcript
biomass
Biomass
  • The total mass of living plants, animals, fungi and bacteria in a given area
slide3

Organisms have special roles, or niches, in the ecosystem in which they live.

  • Within its niche, every organism interacts with that ecosystem in two ways:
    • The organism obtains food energy from the ecosystem
    • The organism contributes energy to the ecosystem
food webs
Food Webs

Herbivores – eats plants

Carnivores – eats animals

Omnivores – eats plant and animals

Insectivore – eats insects

Top predator

Top predator

Consumers:

all animals + fungi + some bacteria

Producers:

all plants + some bacteria

what happens when organisms die
What happens when organisms die?

When organisms die, they become detrius

  • DETRIUS is all the dead plants, dead animals, and animal waste
  • Detrius – contains organic (carbon containing) and inorganic compounds
detrivores
Detrivores
  • Detrivores – organisms like snails, beetles, and earthworms that EAT detrius.
    • This helps decomposition because it increases the surface area of detrius
decomposers
Decomposers
  • Decomposers – organisms like Bacteria and Fungi break detrius into smaller molecules (nutrients) that can be absorbed by other organisms
    • Nutrients are recycled back into ecosystem
biodegradation
Biodegradation
  • Biodegradation – if something is biodegradable then it can be decomposed by Bacteria and Fungi
    • Example: many plastics are non-biodegradable (cannot be broken down by decomposers)
food chains
Food Chains
  • A food chain shows the flow of energy from producers to consumers
  • Trophic level (aka: feeding level) is the position the organism occupies in the food chain
  • Each trophic level helps ID the organism’s niche or role in the ecosystem
trophic levels
Trophic Levels

Term

  • Primary Producer
  • Primary Consumer
  • Secondary Consumer
  • Tertiary Consumer

Example

  • Plants
  • Herbior omnivores
  • Omni or carnivores
  • Omni or carnivores

Ferns  Crickets  Snakes  Eagles

energy flow
Energy Flow
  • Plants use energy to produce carbohydrates (+ other organic molecules) in a process called photosynthesis
energy flow1
Energy Flow
  • These carbohydrates (sugars) are used as energy by plants as well as consumers that eat plants
energy flow2
Energy Flow
  • All consumers store excess energy as glycogen (carbohydrate), fat, and protein
    • Omnivores and carnivores can get their energy by eating other consumers (animals)
energy flow3
Energy Flow
  • Most organisms on the Earth get their energy either directly or indirectly from the sun
ecological pyramids1
Ecological Pyramids
  • Pyramid of energy – the 90%/10% rule
    • Only 10% of the available energy is transferred from one trophic level to the next
    • 90% of the energy an organism takes in is used for growth and repair or lost as heat
ecological pyramids2
Ecological Pyramids
  • 90%/10% rule is why many food chains have a maximum of 5 trophic level
slide19

Owner

Spent on Food

Editors

Spent on Food

Reporters

Spent on Food

Mailroom

Spent on Food

ecological pyramids example
Ecological Pyramids - Example
  • Wolf eats a deer but does not consume all deer parts + some of the food eaten is eliminated as waste
  • Therefore, the wolf only gets a portion of the available energy from the deer
  • The energy the wolf does get is used to keep the wolf alive, to maintain its body temperature, and some energy is lost as heat
pyramid of biomass and numbers1
Pyramid of Biomass and Numbers
  • As you move up the food chain there are fewer organisms.
    • Because energy is lost at each trophic level
    • Less energy available at each level means that fewer individuals can be supported
pyramid of biomass and numbers2
Pyramid of Biomass and Numbers
  • As you move up the food chain there is less biomass
    • Total mass of all organisms at the trophic level drops the higher up the food chain you go
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