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What is AI? Psychometric AI As An Answer. Selmer Bringsjord, Bettina Schimanski Dept. of Cognitive Science / Dept. of Computer Science RAIR (Rensselaer Artificial Intelligence and Reasoning) Lab Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute Troy, NY 12180 USA [email protected] ; [email protected]

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What is AI? Psychometric AI

As An Answer

Selmer Bringsjord, Bettina Schimanski

Dept. of Cognitive Science / Dept. of Computer Science

RAIR (Rensselaer Artificial Intelligence and Reasoning) Lab

Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute

Troy, NY 12180 USA

[email protected]du ; [email protected]

www.rpi.edu/~brings ; www.bettinaschimanski.com

www.cs.rpi.edu/~schimb/peri

IJCAI 2003 Conference

August 15, 2003




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An Answer to: What is AI?

A New Kind of AI

  • Assume the ‘A’ part isn’t the problem: we know what an artifact is.

  • There is no agreement on what human intelligence is. - Two notorious conferences. See The g Factor.

  • But we can agree that one great success story of psychology is testing, and prediction on the basis of it. (The Big Test)

  • Psychometric AI offers a simple but radical answer:

    • (Naïve definition): AI is the field devoted to building intelligent artificial agents, i.e., agents capable of solid performance on intelligence tests.

  • Don’t confuse this with: “Some human is intelligent…”

S/B


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Psychometric AI is not completely new

  • Early roots: PAI was implicitly entertained with Evan’s 1968 ANALOGY program

  • However, PAI can not be based on tests which consist solely of geometric analogies

B/B


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Objection 1

“If one were offered a machine purported to be intelligent, what would be an appropriate method of evaluating this claim? The most obvious approach might be to give the machine an IQ test … However, [good performance on tasks seen in IQ tests would not] be completely satisfactory because the machine would have to be specially prepared for any specific task that it was asked to perform. The task could not be described to the machine in a normal conversation (verbal or written) if the specific nature of the task was not already programmed into the machine. Such considerations led many people to believe that the ability to communicate freely using some form of natural language is an essential attribute of an intelligent entity.” (Fischler & Firschein 1990, p. 12)

B/B


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Our Rebuttal

  • As we’ve already implied, PERI will be able to solve many puzzles, without being pre-engineered.

  • Have built theorem prover-based agents to infallibly crack not only geometric analogies, but RPM items they have never seen before

  • Humans will communicate with PERI in natural language

  • Tests of mental ability = much more than IQ tests

B/S


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Intelligence Tests: Narrow vs. Broad

Thurstone’s view of

intelligence

Spearman’s

view of intelligence

S/S


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Narrow Test: RPM

=========== start of search ===========

given clause #1: (wt=2) 10 [] R1(a11).

given clause #2: (wt=2) 11 [] R1(a12).

given clause #3: (wt=2) 12 [] R1(a13).

...

given clause #4: (wt=2) 13 [] R2(a21).

given clause #278: (wt=16) 287 [para_into,64.3.1,3.3.1] R2(x)| -R3(a23)|

-EmptyBar(y)| -R3(x)| -EmptyBar(x)| -T(a23)| -R3(y)| -T(y).

given clause #279: (wt=16) 288 [para_into,65.3.1,8.3.1] R2(x)| -R3(a23)|

-StripedBar(y)| -R3(x)| -StripedBar(x)| -EmptyBar(a23)| -R3(y)|

-EmptyBar(y).

Search stopped by max_seconds option.

============ end of search ============

Correct!

S/B


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Broad Test: WAIS

Wechsler Adult Intelligent Scale

WAIS includes many sub-tests

  • The Comprehension sub-test is so difficult it could be a motivator for the CYC dream

  • Deals with ordinary conversation

Block Design

- PERI has already cracked this

Picture Arrangement

- Deals with many mental facets

PERI should specifically solve all of the WAIS

- From there, we move to all other established tests

Ex: “Why are the tires of automobiles made of rubber, rather than, say, plastic?”

B/B


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Improved Definition of PAI

  • Psychometric AI is the field devoted to building information-processing entities capable of at least solid performance on all established, validated tests of intelligence and mental ability, a class of tests that includes IQ tests, tests of reasoning, of creativity, mechanical ability, and so on.

B/B


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PERIPscyhometric Experimental Robotic Intelligence

  • Scorbot-ER IX

  • Sony B&W XC55 Video Camera

  • Cognex MVS-8100M Frame Grabber

  • Dragon Naturally Speaking Software

  • NL (Carmel & RealPro?)

  • BH8-260 BarrettHand Dexterous 3-Finger Grasper System

PERI was not designed to simulate how a human thinks

- AI, not cognitive modeling

B/B


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Block Design Task(Not actual blocks from WAIS)

Place blocks together so that all edges match in color

PERI can solve it in under one second of CPU time and not just ones from the WAIS but any Block Design task given to it

(Blocks courtesy of Binary Arts Corporation)

B/B



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Objection 2

  • Isn’t PAI is idiosyncratic?

    • PAI is a generalization of a longstanding answer to the “What is AI?” question

    • Is the answer that appeals to the TT and its relatives

    • AI is the field devoted to building artificial entities able to pass TTT

    • Tests are clean and crisp – have determinate starts and ends, yielding concrete verdicts

    • PAI extends and clarifies Turing’s approach

S/S


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Objections 3 & 4

  • Don’t TT and TTT subsume PAI?

    • PAI uses Divide and Conquer

    • All topics are fair game in TT and TTT

    • Both are hugely ambitious goals

  • AI has Applications…?

    • An agent able to pass these tests will have the capacity to provide the desired applications

S/S


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Objections 5 & 6

  • But PAI will only tap logicist AI?

    • PAI will unite logicist and sub-symbolic approaches

  • But AI researchers don’t do PAI?

    • PAI is descriptive and prescriptive

    • Developers will inevitably modularize their challenges, building sub-agents and negotiate tests associated with these modules

    • AI applications probably themselves constitute miniature tests

S/S


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Objections 7 & 8

  • Behaving like humans vs. doing well on IQ tests

    • Create “smart” agents and then “de-smart” them later

  • Performing well on “any possibly existing” psychometric test makes PAI ill-defined

    • The challenge is to create an agent with the capacity to crack tests he has never seen before

    • These tests must be validated via ordinary statistico-mathematical standards used in psychometrics

S/B


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Narratological Reasoning & Thwarting Terrorism…

  • Terrorists struggle to make stories real.

  • Their behavior can be anticipated, and thus

  • thwarted.

  • We need computers that can imagine future

  • events in a (twisted) narrative.

  • Threat anticipation (Picture Arrangement)

    • Predictive power done quickly ….

B/B



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Picture Arrangement

Currently untouchable AI -- but we shall see.

B/B



Rair web and r d l.jpg

S/S

RAIR Web and R&D

Advanced Synthetic Characters

MARMML

PERI

Savant

PAI

Slate

CDs

Super Teaching


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Future of PAI / Questions?

  • Efforts to crack IQ tests should lead to systems able to generate new items for other established tests, and new tests

  • May help determine what tests a machine can solve, and those it has more trouble than a human = security

  • Once successful: Is PERI a genius or does human intelligence go well beyond what can be tested for?

  • Divides Strong and Weak AI

S


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