UNIVERSITY ROLES IN MEETING ASPIRATIONS FOR ICT & ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT
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UNIVERSITY ROLES IN MEETING ASPIRATIONS FOR ICT & ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT PRESENTATION BY: PROF. OLIVE M. MUGENDA Ph.D VICE-CHANCELLOR KENYATTA UNIVERSITY 19-21 st November,2006. MAIN TOPICS. Characteristics of ICT ICT for Education- Applications of ICT ICT initiatives in Kenyatta University

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UNIVERSITY ROLES IN MEETING ASPIRATIONS FOR ICT & ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENTPRESENTATION BY:PROF. OLIVE M. MUGENDAPh.DVICE-CHANCELLORKENYATTA UNIVERSITY19-21st November,2006


Main topics

MAIN TOPICS

  • Characteristics of ICT

  • ICT for Education- Applications of ICT

  • ICT initiatives in Kenyatta University

  • Main Challenges

2


1 unique characteristics of ict

1) Unique Characteristics of ICT

  • ICT is pervasive and cross-cutting

    • From personal use to business and Govt.

    • Can be tailored to meet personal, local, diverse needs.

  • ICT creates networks

    • Those connected benefit from the network

    • The Network externalities increases as it grows

  • 3


    Characteristics cont

    • ICT disseminates information and knowledge

      • Separates content from its physical location

      • Makes knowledge available to remote communities

  • ICT allows for zero or declining marginal costs

    • Replication of content is free

    • Distribution of marginal cost is near zero

    • ICT reduces transaction costs

  • Characteristics cont’

    4


    Characteristics cont1

    Characteristics cont’

    • ICT enhances efficiency

      • Has power to store, retrieve, sorts, filter and distribute information 

      • Makes processes and transactions leaner and more effective

  • ICT reduces the need for intermediaries

    • Links consumers directly to producers

    • Allows users to acquire products and services directly

  • 5


    Characteristics cont2

    Characteristics cont’

    • ICT is global

      • Transcends cultural and linguistic barriers

      • Allows local communities to be part of the global network

        Summary

      • These characteristics suggest that ICT can be a powerful enabler of development

    6


    2 ict for education

    2) ICT for Education

    Applications of ICT

    • Distance Education

      • Affordability and geography have been barriers to access

      • ICT has enhanced the quality of distance education

      • Six largest Distance Learning Universities are located in developing countries: Turkey, Indonesia, China, India, Thailand and Korea

      • Distance Education facilitated by ICT has mainly been applied to tertiary education

      • ICT has enabled cross-border education

    7


    Applications cont

    Applications cont’

    • Scientific Research

      • Development of networks over the internet empowers indigenous research & development (R&D) in developing countries

      • Existence of virtual research groups allows databases and information to be shared

      • ICT enhances North-South and South-South collaborations

    8


    Applications cont1

    • Technical and vocational training

      • ICT is being employed to train workers in many functional areas e.g Health care,IT services, teachers

    Applications cont’

    • Education Administration

    • Enhances day-to-day management of institutions

      • Timetabling

      • Student admission &Tracking

      • Financial Management

      • Medical services

      • Procurement & store management

      • Data distribution & management

    9


    3 ict initiatives in kenyatta university

    3) ICT INITIATIVES IN KENYATTA UNIVERSITY

    • Open Learning

    • Before 2003 Kenyatta University offered residential programmes only

    • In 2003 an Open Learning programme was launched

    • Eight Regional Centres were established

    • The Learning Management System (Blackboard) was procured to facilitate e-learning

    • Open Learning Centres have access to internet

    • Open learning programme has enhanced access to university education

    10


    Ict initiatives cont

    ICT Initiatives cont’

    • Virtual Learning

    • Kenyatta University is a member institution of the African Virtual University

    • Programmes are offered collaboratively between Kenyatta University and other universities,e.g. Curtin University,Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology

    • Courses are delivered through chat rooms, email, bulletin boards, tele & video conferencing

    • Kenyatta University’s AVU is well equipped: internet connected computer rooms, video and tele conferencing halls, VSAT etc

    11


    Ict initiatives cont1

    ICT Initiatives cont’

    • University Management

      • Kenyatta University recently recognized the need to make key administrative and management activities more efficient

      • With financial support from Rockefeller Foundation,the following areas are being computerized:

        • Student admission &Tracking

        • Financial Management

        • Medical services

        • Data management

        • Networking

    12


    Ict initiatives cont2

    ICT Initiatives cont’

    • Other initiatives

      • University Strategic and Vision Plan

        • Plan Targets a computerization programme that will support all the activities of the University

    • University ICT policy

      • ICT policy acts as framework for ICT initiative in the University

      • Operates under the umbrella of national ICT policy

    13


    Ict initiatives cont3

    • Increased Bandwidth

      • For e-learning to be effectively used, there is need for increased bandwidth of internet access

      • Bandwidth has been increased from 1mbps to 2mbps this year

      • This has enhanced up loading of e-learning course materials and faster downloading

    ICT Initiatives cont’

    14


    Ict initiatives cont4

    ICT Initiatives cont’

    • Increased number of computers

      • Kenyatta University currently has 1,787 computers

      • The projection is to have over 2,772 by 2008

      • Laptops to be provided soon to members of senate to facilitate e-senate meetings

    • ICT training for staff and students

      • Training to target all students and teaching and non-teaching staff whose work require computers

    15


    Ict initiatives cont5

    • Building a University internetwork

      • Project for networking all the campuses developed

      • Proposed network will create an intranet to enhance information sharing within and outside the University

      • Project to reduce paper work and increase efficiency

    • Security of ICT

      • A unit to be established to deal with:

        • Data security

        • Data network security

        • Software development & Systems administration

    ICT Initiatives cont’

    16


    4 challenges

    4) Challenges

    • Limited Infrastructure

      • Africa has only 2% of the global telephone network with over half of the lines in cities

      • In Africa, telephone density is less than 2 lines per 1,000 inhabitants, compared with:

        • 48 per 1,000 in Asia

        • 280 per 1,000 in America

        • 314 per 1,000 in Europe

        • 520 per 1,000 in high-income countries

    17


    Challenges cont

    Challenges Cont’

    • Low speed & frequent breakdowns of servers

      • Sometimes it takes too long to download a single big document

      • Frequent internet interruptions

      • Frequent power interruptions

    18


    Challenges cont1

    • Inadequate ICT skills

      • A percentage of teaching staff do not have adequate ICT skills for teaching and research

      • Some staff unwilling to try out the technology

      • Inadequate technical support

      • Inadequate technical support in areas of installation, operation, and maintenance of technical equipment (including software), network administration, and network security.

    Challenges Cont’

    19


    Challenges cont2

    Challenges Cont’

    • Prohibitive costs

    • ICTs require large capital investments

    • Universities in Africa generally have limited budgets

    • This leads to high student and staff computer ratio

    • Even where basic infrastructure has been provided by development partners, sustainability is still a problem

    20


    Thank you

    THANK YOU

    21


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