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Respiratory System. Objectives: Describe the structure of the respiratory system. 10.01 Analyze the function of the respiratory system. 10.02 Identify characteristics and treatment of common respiratory disorders. 10.03. Respiratory System.

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Respiratory System

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Respiratory System

Objectives:

Describe the structure of the respiratory system.10.01

Analyze the function of the respiratory system. 10.02

Identify characteristics and treatment of common respiratory disorders. 10.03


Respiratory System

Includes the nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, alveoli, lungs, and pleura.


Nasal Cavity

Nasal Septum=divides nasal cavities into R and L sides

Cilia- the hairs in your nose, trap larger dirt particles.


Sinuses- cavities in the skull

Connected to the nasal cavity, by ducts

Lined with mucous membrane to warm and moisten air

Sinuses give resonance to the voice.


Pharynx

The throat

Common passageway for air and food

5” long

When food is swallowed, the Epiglottis closes over the opening to the larynx preventing food from entering the lungs

Pharynx


Meet the Larynx

Larynx- voice box

Triangular chamber below the pharynx

Within the larynx are vocal cords

Epiglottis covers larynx during swallowing

Adam’s apple

Produces sound

Made of cartilage fibrous plates


Meet the Trachea

Windpipe.

4 ½ in. long.

Walls are alternate bands of membrane and C shaped rings of hyaline cartilage to keep trachea open and more rigid

Lined with ciliated mucous membrane.

Coughing and expectoration gets rid of dust-laden mucous.


Did Someone say Bronchi and Bronchioles are next?

Lower end of trachea divides into R and L bronchus

Become bronchial tubes and bronchioles as braonches enter lungs

Passageway for air from trachea to alveoli in lungs


Alveoli

Clusters of thin-walled sacs made of single layer epithelial tissue

Inner surfaces covered with Surfactant to keep alveoli from collapsing

Each alveolus surrounded by capillaries

O2 and CO2 exchange takes place between the alveoli and capillaries (diffusion)


Lovely Lungs

Fill the thoracic cavity

Upper part=apex

Lower part=base

Lung tissue porous and spongy –it floats

R lung=larger and shorter displaced by the liver and has 3 lobes

L lung smaller displaced by the heart and has 2 lobes


Pretty Pleura

Thin, moist slippery membrane that covers the lungs.

Double walled sac.

Space is pleural cavity filled with pleural fluid to prevent friction.


Test your gray matter…..

Alveoli

Larynx

Pleura

Speech

Trachea

Rings of Cartilage

Lobes

Bronchi


The partition that separated the nose into right and left cavities is the:

The medical name for the throat is the:

Pharynx

Septum


That’s all for now….


Function of the Respiratory System

External respiration, internal respiration , and cellular respiration

Production of sound (vocal cords)


Pulmonary Ventilation (Breathing)

Inspiration Inhalation

Intercostal muscles lift ribs outward, sternum rises and the diaphragm contracts and moves downward this increases the volume of the lungs and air rushes in.


Pulmonary Ventilation

Expiration

Opposite action takes place.

Exhalation is a passive process


Respiratory Movements

1 inspiration + 1 expiration=1 respiration

Normal adult = 14-20

Respirations per minute

Increases with exercise, body temperature, certain diseases.

Age-newborm= 40-60/min

Sleep= respiration 

Emotion can  or  rate


Coughing

Deep breath followed by forceful expulsion of air – to clear lower respiratory tract

Hiccups – spasm of the diaphragm and spasmotic closure of the glottis- irritation to diaphragm or phrenic nerve.


Sneezing

Air forced through nose to clear respiratory tract

Yawning

Deep prolonged breath that fills the lungs, increases oxygen within the blood


Control BreathingBreathing controlled by neural and chemical factors.

  • Neural Factors

  • Respiratory center located in the Medulla Oblongata

  •  on CO2 or  O2 in the blood will trigger respiratory center

  • Phrenic Nerve- stimulates the diaphragm

Chemical Factors

Depends on the levels of CO2 in the blood (respiratory center in the brain)

Chemoreceptors in aorta and carotid arteries sensitive to the amount of blood O2


Test your gray matter

Carbon dioxide in the blood

CO2 level in blood

Filtering in the air

14-20

Trachea, bronchi, alveoli

Inspiration

Speech


Respiratory Disorders


Common Cold

Contagious viral respiratory infection

Contributing factors- chilling fatigue,poor nutrition, and not enough sleep

Rx- stay in bed, drink warm liquids and fruit juice, good nutrition

Good handwashing best prevention.

Also called an Upper Respiratory Infection (URI)


Pharyngitis- red, inflammation throat

Laryngitis- Inflammation of the larynx or voice box

Symptoms- sore throat , hoarseness or loss of voice dysphagia (difficulty swallowing)


Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the trachea and bronchi

Symptoms-cough, fever, substernal paina nd rales (raspy sound)

Chronic bronchitis-middle or old age, cigarette smoking most common cause.

Bronchitis


Viral infection of upper respiratory tract

Symptoms-Fever, mucopurulent discharge, muscular pain, extreme exhaustion

Rx – treat the symptoms

Influenza (Flu)


Infection of the lung

Caused by bacteria or virus

Alveoli fill with thick fluid

Symptoms- chest pain, fever, chills dyspnea

Diagnosis- x-ray and listening to lungs

Rx- O2 and antibiotics

Pneumonia


Tuberculosis

Infectious bacterial lung disease

Tubercles (lesions) forms in the lungs

Symptoms: cough, low grade fever in the afternoon, weigh loss, night sweats

Diagnosis- TB skin test

If skin test positive-follow up with chest x-ray and sputum sample

RX- Antibiotic


TB Game

http://nobelprize.org/educational_games/medicine/tuberculosis/

Terms to know:

Apnea

Dyspnea

Tachypnea


Tuberculosis

Due to the increase in immigration, homelessness and AIDS, the incidence of TB is increasing in the United States.

TB


Inflammatory airway obstruction

Caused by allergen or psychological stress

5% of Americans have asthma

Symptoms: difficulty exhaling, dyspnea, wheezing, tightness in chest

RX anti-inflammatory drugs, inhaled bronchodilator.

Asthma


Alveoli become over-dilated, lose their elasticity, can’t rebound, may eventually rupture

Air becomes trapped, can’t exhale-forced exhalation required

Reduced exchange of O2 and CO2

Dyspnea increases as disease progresses

Emphysema

Emphysema

RX – Alleviate the symptoms, decrease exposure to respiratory irritants, prevent infections, restructure activities to prevent need for O2


Test your gray matter…

Laryngitis

Emphysema

Common cold

TB

Bacteria + Virus

TB

Emphysema

Asthma


The most common cause of chronic bronchitis is:

Influenza is caused by a :

Virus

Cigarette Smoking


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