Respiratory System. Objectives: Describe the structure of the respiratory system. 10.01 Analyze the function of the respiratory system. 10.02 Identify characteristics and treatment of common respiratory disorders. 10.03. Respiratory System.
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Describe the structure of the respiratory system.10.01
Analyze the function of the respiratory system. 10.02
Identify characteristics and treatment of common respiratory disorders. 10.03
Includes the nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, alveoli, lungs, and pleura.
Nasal Septum=divides nasal cavities into R and L sides
Cilia- the hairs in your nose, trap larger dirt particles.
Sinuses- cavities in the skull
Connected to the nasal cavity, by ducts
Lined with mucous membrane to warm and moisten air
Sinuses give resonance to the voice.
Common passageway for air and food
When food is swallowed, the Epiglottis closes over the opening to the larynx preventing food from entering the lungs
Larynx- voice box
Triangular chamber below the pharynx
Within the larynx are vocal cords
Epiglottis covers larynx during swallowing
Made of cartilage fibrous plates
4 ½ in. long.
Walls are alternate bands of membrane and C shaped rings of hyaline cartilage to keep trachea open and more rigid
Lined with ciliated mucous membrane.
Coughing and expectoration gets rid of dust-laden mucous.
Lower end of trachea divides into R and L bronchus
Become bronchial tubes and bronchioles as braonches enter lungs
Passageway for air from trachea to alveoli in lungs
Clusters of thin-walled sacs made of single layer epithelial tissue
Inner surfaces covered with Surfactant to keep alveoli from collapsing
Each alveolus surrounded by capillaries
O2 and CO2 exchange takes place between the alveoli and capillaries (diffusion)
Fill the thoracic cavity
Lung tissue porous and spongy –it floats
R lung=larger and shorter displaced by the liver and has 3 lobes
L lung smaller displaced by the heart and has 2 lobes
Thin, moist slippery membrane that covers the lungs.
Double walled sac.
Space is pleural cavity filled with pleural fluid to prevent friction.
Rings of Cartilage
The partition that separated the nose into right and left cavities is the:
The medical name for the throat is the:
Function of the Respiratory System
External respiration, internal respiration , and cellular respiration
Production of sound (vocal cords)
Intercostal muscles lift ribs outward, sternum rises and the diaphragm contracts and moves downward this increases the volume of the lungs and air rushes in.
Opposite action takes place.
Exhalation is a passive process
1 inspiration + 1 expiration=1 respiration
Normal adult = 14-20
Respirations per minute
Increases with exercise, body temperature, certain diseases.
Emotion can or rate
Deep breath followed by forceful expulsion of air – to clear lower respiratory tract
Hiccups – spasm of the diaphragm and spasmotic closure of the glottis- irritation to diaphragm or phrenic nerve.
Air forced through nose to clear respiratory tract
Deep prolonged breath that fills the lungs, increases oxygen within the blood
Depends on the levels of CO2 in the blood (respiratory center in the brain)
Chemoreceptors in aorta and carotid arteries sensitive to the amount of blood O2
Carbon dioxide in the blood
CO2 level in blood
Filtering in the air
Trachea, bronchi, alveoli
Contagious viral respiratory infection
Contributing factors- chilling fatigue,poor nutrition, and not enough sleep
Rx- stay in bed, drink warm liquids and fruit juice, good nutrition
Good handwashing best prevention.
Also called an Upper Respiratory Infection (URI)
Pharyngitis- red, inflammation throat
Laryngitis- Inflammation of the larynx or voice box
Symptoms- sore throat , hoarseness or loss of voice dysphagia (difficulty swallowing)
Inflammation of the mucous membrane of the trachea and bronchi
Symptoms-cough, fever, substernal paina nd rales (raspy sound)
Chronic bronchitis-middle or old age, cigarette smoking most common cause.
Viral infection of upper respiratory tract
Symptoms-Fever, mucopurulent discharge, muscular pain, extreme exhaustion
Rx – treat the symptoms
Infection of the lung
Caused by bacteria or virus
Alveoli fill with thick fluid
Symptoms- chest pain, fever, chills dyspnea
Diagnosis- x-ray and listening to lungs
Rx- O2 and antibiotics
Infectious bacterial lung disease
Tubercles (lesions) forms in the lungs
Symptoms: cough, low grade fever in the afternoon, weigh loss, night sweats
Diagnosis- TB skin test
If skin test positive-follow up with chest x-ray and sputum sample
Terms to know:
Due to the increase in immigration, homelessness and AIDS, the incidence of TB is increasing in the United States.
Inflammatory airway obstruction
Caused by allergen or psychological stress
5% of Americans have asthma
Symptoms: difficulty exhaling, dyspnea, wheezing, tightness in chest
RX anti-inflammatory drugs, inhaled bronchodilator.
Alveoli become over-dilated, lose their elasticity, can’t rebound, may eventually rupture
Air becomes trapped, can’t exhale-forced exhalation required
Reduced exchange of O2 and CO2
Dyspnea increases as disease progresses
RX – Alleviate the symptoms, decrease exposure to respiratory irritants, prevent infections, restructure activities to prevent need for O2
Bacteria + Virus
The most common cause of chronic bronchitis is:
Influenza is caused by a :