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Territorial Integrity: Xingjiang

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Territorial Integrity: Xingjiang. Background. 1.6 million square km in size. Borders Russia, Mongolia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan and India. Abundant oil reserves. Largest natural gas producing region of China.

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background
Background
  • 1.6 million square km in size.
  • Borders Russia, Mongolia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Afghanistan, Pakistan and India.
  • Abundant oil reserves.
  • Largest natural gas producing region of China.
  • Known as ‘Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region’ or ‘East Turkestan’.
demographic
Demographic
  • Xinjiang is home to several ethnic groups:
    • Uyghurs
    • Uzbeks
    • Kyrgyz
    • Tatars
    • Kazakhs
    • Iranians, etc
  • Majority of the population adheres to Islam.
history
History
  • 1912 Qing Dynasty replaced by the Republic of China, control of the Xinjiang area taken over.
  • Nov 1933 self proclaimed ‘East Turkestan’, but overthrown.
  • 1937 Soviet Invasion in Xinjiang War.
  • Second ‘East Turkestan Republic’ established 1944-1949 with Soviet support. This ended when People’s Liberation Army entered Xinjiang in 1949. (revolution v. invasion?)
history1
History
  • During Chinese Famine Xinjiang lost a lot of residents to the Soviet Union and East China.
  • Student demonstrations in the 1980s
  • Separatist Movement:
    • 1990 Riots in the Baren Township (20 deaths)
    • 1997 Ghulja Incident
    • 1997 Urumqi bus bombings
recent events
Recent Events
  • 2007 Xinjiang Raid
  • 2008 thwarted Suicide Bombing on China Southern Airlines flight
  • 2008 Xinjiang attack (deaths of 16 police officers 4 days before the Beijing Olympics)
  • July 2009 Urumqi riots
  • September 2009 Xinjiang unrest
  • 2010 Aksu bombing (led to trials of 376 people)
  • 2012 – April: PRC hints at Uighur terrorism links to Pakistan
articles
Articles
  • “A year after Xinjiang Riots, Ethnic tensions simmer”
  • “Armed Han residents take to streets of Urumqi seeking revenge”
  • Council of Foreign Relations Article – on wikispaces
activity
Activity
  • How does the Xinjiang area relate to the national interest of ‘Territorial Integrity’?
  • What reasons do the Uighur give for their protests?
  • What are some similarities and differences between the Uighur protests in Xinjiang and the Taiwan independence movements?
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