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Associacion Latino-Americana de Fisica Nuclear y Aplicaciones - ALAFNA. Alinka Lépine-Szily (co-chair of ALAFNA). Meeting NuPECC, Sevilla 08/18/2012. CHART OF SANTIAGO The “Association of Latin American Nuclear Physics and

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Associacion latino americana de fisica nuclear y aplicaciones alafna

Associacion Latino-Americana de Fisica Nuclear y Aplicaciones- ALAFNA

Alinka Lépine-Szily

(co-chair of ALAFNA)

Meeting NuPECC, Sevilla 08/18/2012


Associacion latino americana de fisica nuclear y aplicaciones alafna

CHART OF SANTIAGO

The “Association of Latin American Nuclear Physics and

Applications” (ALANFA) was formed in Santiago, Chile on Dec. 19, 2009, by representatives of Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela.

In Spanish is called “Asociación Latino Americana de Física Nuclear y Aplicaciones” ALAFNA

In Portuguese is called “Associação Latino Americana de Física Nuclear e Aplicações” ALAFNA

Chairs of ALANFA: Andrés Kreiner (Argentina)

Alinka Lépine-Szily (Brazil)


Associacion latino americana de fisica nuclear y aplicaciones alafna

Steering Committee (SC) of ALAFNA is formed by the 15 original founders:

Ricardo Alarcon (Arizona State Univ., USA)

Hugo Arellano (U. of Chile, Chile)

Haydn Barros (U.Simon Bolivar, Venezuela)

Maria Ester Brandan (UNAM, Mexico)

Roelof Bijker (UNAM, Mexico)

Laszlo Sajo Bohus (U.Simon Bolivar, Venezuela)

Fernando Cristancho (UNal, Colombia)

Paulo Gomes (U. Fed. Fluminense, Brazil)

Carlos Granja(Inst.Exp.Appl.Phys. Czech Tech.U. Czech Rep.)

Andrés Kreiner (Tandar, CNEA, Argentina) Chair

Alinka Lépine-Szily (USP, Brazil) Chair

Rubens Lichtenthäler (USP, Brazil)

Modesto Montoya (Inst. Per. Em. Nucl., Peru)

Roberto Morales (U. of Chile, Chile)

Alberto Pacheco (Tandar, CNEA, Argentina)


Associacion latino americana de fisica nuclear y aplicaciones alafna

Objectives of ALAFNA

To strengthen ties among the Latin American Communities doing nuclear research and applications to foster collaborations and promotion of activities,

To educate the scientific community and the general public through the promotion of nuclear physics and the peaceful uses of nuclear technology,

To do periodic overall assessments of nuclear science in Latin America in the context of world wide activities, and

To discuss at a multi-national level future planning of nuclear science activities in Latin America


Associacion latino americana de fisica nuclear y aplicaciones alafna

Role of the Steering Committee:

-establishment of ALAFNA governance rules

-divulgation of ALAFNA in the scientific community

-divulgation of ALAFNA within governments of Latin America with interest in nuclear science and applications

ALAFNA homepage was installed on the website of the IX Latin American Symposium on Nuclear Physics and Applications” (LASNPA) july 18-22,2011, Quito, Ecuador

http://www.lasnpa-quito2011.org/alafna.org


Associacion latino americana de fisica nuclear y aplicaciones alafna

  • 07/22/2011: ALAFNA meeting after IX Latin American

  • Symposium on Nuclear Physics and Applications (LASNPA).

  • Agenda: Bylaws of ALAFNA

  • The bylaws of the Association were discussed by all presents.

  • Some conclusions:

  • The association should be open to all nuclear scientists

  • of the region (different from ANPHA or NUPECC)

  • The executive board should have 1 representative of

  • each member country.

  • Proposal of Chile and Venezuela: Alafna should promote

  • education for general public and schools on all levels,

  • to compensate the negative effect on the general publics

  • perception on nuclear science due to the Fukushima accident.

  • Agenda: ANDES project

  • Construction of an underground laboratory with international visibility in the tunel Agua Negra, between Argentina and Chile, below the Andes. Situated between 3.5-5km on Argentinian side, Thickness of the rock >1500 m.


Associacion latino americana de fisica nuclear y aplicaciones alafna

  • Situated between 3.5-5km on Argentinian side, Thickness of the rock >1500 m.

  • The present members have discussed the project and those of the steering commiteevoted in favour of an endorsement.

  • However there is a worry about the cost of the project and the maintenance of the present funding of existing projects.

  • Also it was stated that the project should benefit the local and regional technological developement. Accelerator developement-Tandar


Associacion latino americana de fisica nuclear y aplicaciones alafna

  • Common activities since the last meeting (Dec. 19, 2009)

  • Adoption of the Chart of Santiago (January 2010)

  • July 2-4, 2010 two-Day Symposium on International Nuclear Science

  • of the IUPAP Working Group WG.9 at TRIUMF

  • July 10, 2010: National Academy of Sciences (NP2010)

  • Text in the final report

  • July 2011 IX Symposium under the auspices of IUPAP (Quito)

  • July 2011 Presence at IUPAP WG9 meeting on 07/24/2011 at MIT

  • February 2012, Experimental Nuclear Physics Summer School at USP

  • with expressive latin american participation.

  • August 2012 Presence at IUPAP WG9 meeting on 08/18/2012 at

  • RIKEN

  • -October 2012 Presence at NuPECC meeting Sevilla.

  • -26-30 Nov. 2012 Andean School “Nuclear Physics in the 21st century”

  • in Bogota, Colombia.


Associacion latino americana de fisica nuclear y aplicaciones alafna

  • Latin American Symposia on Nuclear Physics and

  • Applications

  • Caracas, Venezuela

  • Caracas, Venezuela

  • San Andrés, Colombia

  • Ciudad de México, México

  • 2003 Santos, Brazil

  • Iguazu, Argentina

  • Cuzco, Peru

  • Santiago, Chile

  • Quito, Ecuador

  • 2013 Montevideo, Uruguay

  • Scope: the dissemination of the major theoretical and experimental

  • advances in the field of nuclear science and its applications.

  • The main topics to be covered are: Nuclear Structure and Reactions,

  • Nuclear and Particle Astrophysics, Cosmic Rays, Hadron Structure

  • and Phases of Nuclear Matter, Tests of Fundamental Symmetries

  • and Properties of Neutrinos, Nuclear Instrumentation and Facilities:

  • Radiation Detectors and Sources, and Applications in Medicine

  • (Biomedical Imaging, Radiotherapy),Art/Archeology, Energy, Space and

  • International Security.


Associacion latino americana de fisica nuclear y aplicaciones alafna

  • Scientific Program of the IX LASNPA

  • Copiar o pdf fa website do simp.

  • Number of participants: 120

  • Less than in Chile (170), due to less local

  • Participation, air fares expensive from

  • Brazil and Argentina, higher fee.

  • Next Symposium dec. 2013-Montevideo

  • -Uruguay

31 plenary talks


Associacion latino americana de fisica nuclear y aplicaciones alafna

58 talks in parallel sessions

http://videos.physics.asu.edu/LatinIX/program-IX-Latin-June30.pdf


Associacion latino americana de fisica nuclear y aplicaciones alafna

  • Number of participants: 125

  • Less than in Chile (170), due to less local

  • participation, air fares expensive from Brazil and Argentina, higher fee.

  • Next Symposium dec. 2013-Montevideo

  • -Uruguay


Associacion latino americana de fisica nuclear y aplicaciones alafna

  • General Informations on the status of

  • Nuclear Physics in

  • Argentina

  • Brazil

  • Chile

  • Mexico

  • Venezuela

  • Ecuador

  • Colombia

  • Peru


  • Associacion latino americana de fisica nuclear y aplicaciones alafna

    Nuclear Physics and Applications in Argentina and Cooperation in Latin America

    A.J.Kreiner1,2,3.

    1Departamento de Física, CNEA, Atomic Energy Commission Arg.

    2Escuela de Ciencia y Tecnología. Universidad de San Martin, Arg.

    3CONICET (National Research Council), Argentina.


    Major facility tandar 20 mv tandem pelletron

    Major facility: TANDAR 20 MV Tandem (Pelletron)

    Facility's major experimental instrumentation and its capabilities:

    • - QDD magnetic spectrometer.

    • - Microbeam facility (beam spots of about 1μ2) with high resolution X-ray detection.

    • - External beam irradiation facility with on-line dose determination.

    • - Heavy-ion identification based on a time-of-flight facility (start and stop signals derived from microchannel plates) followed by a Bragg spectrometer or solid state detectors.

    • - 30-inch diameter multipurpose scattering chamber.

    • - Irradiation chamber for the simulation of outer-space environmental conditions.

    • Ion implanter.

    • Number of actual, active users of the facility: 51

    • Number of a) permanent staff, as scientific, technical, and administrative staff, employed by the lab: 46 and b) temporary staff (including graduate students and postdoctoral researchers on the facility’s payroll): 12


    Research programs

    Research Programs

    The main experimental and theoretical research lines related to Nuclear Physics and its applications are the following:

    • Low-energy nuclear physics: Nuclear structure, nuclear reactions, collective nuclear excitations and giant resonances, break-up reactions and their influence on fusion reactions involving weakly bound nuclei; fusion barrier distributions.

    • High-energy nuclear physics: Hadronic models based on QCD. Phase structure of strong interactions.


    Other cnea centers

    Other CNEA centers

    • 1.2 EZEIZA Atomic Center: Isotope production (40 MeV proton Cyclotron). Nuclear metrology (radiation measurements, standards for gammas, betas, neutrons). Reactor physics (RA-3 research reactor). BNCT with reactors. 60Co irradiators. Isotope production. (150 people).

    • 1.3 BARILOCHE Atomic Center: Neutron physics (electron LINAC for neutron production thru photonuclear reactions, 10 people). Reactor physics and engineering RA-6 (School of Nuclear Engineering). Clinical trials in BNCT (4). Auger physics (4).

    • 1.4 School of Nuclear medicine (Mendoza). PET center in association with National Cancer Institute (Buenos Aires).


    Associacion latino americana de fisica nuclear y aplicaciones alafna

    NUCLEAR PHYSICS RESEARCH IN

    BRAZIL

    Alinka Lépine-Szily


    Associacion latino americana de fisica nuclear y aplicaciones alafna

    Number of scientists and graduate students in

    Nuclear Physics in Brasil in 2010

    In 2005

    (under-estimated)

    96

    25

    170

    291

    2005: 63 universities

    2009: 131 universities (http://www.universidades.com.br/brasil.htm)

    1999: 2.7 millions of students, 6.9%

    2004: 4.16 millions of students

    2009: 4.88 millions of students, 13.9%

    SP


    Associacion latino americana de fisica nuclear y aplicaciones alafna

    State funding agencies: largest is FAPESP (Fundação de Apoio à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo)

    State funding agencies: largest is FAPESP (Fundação de Apoio à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo)

    RIBRAS

    Major Facility for Nuclear Physics research

    8 MV Pelletron Tandem

    University of São Paulo: Institute of Physics

    8 MV tandem

    3-5 MeV.A

    Local facility: Very important for graduate student training, 56 MS and PhD thesis in last 10 years


    Associacion latino americana de fisica nuclear y aplicaciones alafna

    • Facility´s major experimental

    • instrumentation and capabilities:

    • Radioactive Ion Beam Brasil

    • (RIBRAS) 2 superconducting solenoids

    • can select and focus radioactive beams

    • produced by transfer reactions B=6.5T.

    • 6He,8Li,7,10Be,8B,17,18F etc beams.

    • 2. Two large position sensitive

    • neutron detectors (Neutron wall)

    • 3. Gamma-ray+charged particle

    • spectrometer (SACI-PERERE)

    • 4. Enge split-pole spectrometer

    • 5. Multi-purpose scattering chamber.

    • 6. Large scattering chamber


    Associacion latino americana de fisica nuclear y aplicaciones alafna

    Research Programs:

    Low-energy nuclear physics:T,E

    Low energy reaction and structure studies with stable and radioactive beams, break-up, fusion, nuclear astrophysical reactions, Gamma-spectrosopy, nuclear structure with light-ion transfer reactions.

    T: 3-body description of halo nuclei, fusion models for superheavies, weak-interaction for r-process

    High-energy nuclear physics:

    Theory:

    Hadronic models in QCD, Phases of nuclear matter, nuclear astrophysics within relativistic models(hadronic and quark stars),

    Experimental: Auger project

    STAR collaboration at RHIC, Alice collaboration at LHC

    PHENIX collaboration at RHIC, Atlas collab. at LHC

    1111118th 118th Intn Few-Body Problems in PhysIcs 8th International IUPAP Conference on Few-Body Problems in PhysIcs


    Associacion latino americana de fisica nuclear y aplicaciones alafna

    • Highlights of recent results from RIBRAS, first and unique

    • radioactive facility in Latin America

    • elastic scattering of halo nuclei on light, medium mass, heavy nuclei

    • 6He +9Be ,27Al, 51V,120Sn,7Be + 9Be, 51V,8Li + 9Be, 51V

    • 8B + 27Al,8Li, 7Be , 10Be on 12C ,8Li + p, 6He + p

    • Resonant transfer reactions :p(8Li,4He)5He

    p(8Li,4He)5He R-matrix fits

    Ecm(MeV)


    Associacion latino americana de fisica nuclear y aplicaciones alafna

    • Main Institutions:

    • São Paulo state (80% experimental, 35% theoretical

    • activity)

    • São Paulo USP E, T research in low, high energy nuclear physics

    • IFT/UNESP Hadronic models in QCD, 3-body models of halo nuclei T

    • ITA 3-body models of halo nuclei, relativistic nuclear structure T

    • Unicamp; Auger project, RHIC, LHC E

    • IPEN: gamma spectrosopy, instrumentation and applications E

    • 2. Rio de Janeiro

    • UFRJ Theoretical studies of Nuclear Reactions, Hadron Physics T

    • UFF Low energy Nuclear Reactions T,E AMS E

    • CBPF Hadron Physics, fusion models for SHE, r-process T

    • 3. Southern states, Paraná, UEL, applications, Gamma and X-ray spectrometry for material analysis E

    • Santa Catarina, UFSC nuclear astrophysics within relativistic models(hadronic and quark stars) T

    • Rio Grande do Sul, UFRGS, FURGhadron physics using QCD T


    Associacion latino americana de fisica nuclear y aplicaciones alafna

    International Collaborations:

    Experimental:

    1.Strong collaboration between Pelletron (USP) -Tandar

    Argentina and UFF (Niteroi, Brasil) Pro-Sul CNPq-CONICET

    2. STAR, PHENIX collaboration at RHIC

    3. Alice collaboration at LHC

    5. Collaborations: Legnaro, Catania, Sevilla, Madrid, U. Notre Dame, CNS-U.Tokyo, GANIL, ANU

    Theory:

    U.La Plata (Arg.), Cuba, U. Coimbra, Tandar, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences , Oxford Univ., Univ. Tennessee, Univ. Sydney, Univ. Aarhus.

    Difficulties: Small groups, Heavy travel

    expenses, little money for graduate students


    Associacion latino americana de fisica nuclear y aplicaciones alafna

    Funding: Brazil

    Federal Funding Agency: Conselho de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico (CNPq ).

    State funding agencies: Ex: Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa de Estado de Sao Paulo (FAPESP).

    ~50 M$/year, 2.5M$/year for Nuclear Physics,

    (include grants, student fellowships, does not include

    salaries, which are paid by Univ, Intitutes)

    Science without Frontiers:200.000 undergraduate students/year are being t for 1 year abroad.

    Funding: less in other Latin American countries

    Future projects in Brazil:RMB (Multipurpose Research Reactor) of 30MW for radioisotope production and applications, Argentinian-Brazilian collaboration OPAL reactor, totally funded 900MR$=350MEuro


    Associacion latino americana de fisica nuclear y aplicaciones alafna

    XXXV Nuclear Physics Workshop in Brazil

    2-6 september 2012, Maresias, Brazil

    24 plenary talks (14 international), 191 participants,

    Parallel session, posters

    New 14C-AMS facility installed at Universidade Federal Fluminense,

    Niteroi, Brazil . First in South America.


    Associacion latino americana de fisica nuclear y aplicaciones alafna

    Nuclear Physics in Chile

    Roberto Morales

    Universidad de Chile


    University of chile van de graaff laboratory

    UNIVERSITY OF CHILE VAN DE GRAAFF LABORATORY

    Acelerador Van de Graaff. 3.75 MeV

    Sistemas de espectroscopía gamma, rayos X, alfa

    P.A. Miranda, M. A. Chesta, S. A. Cancino, J. R. Morales, M. I. Dinator, J. A. Wachter and C. Tenreiro

    Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B 248 (2006) 150-154


    Associacion latino americana de fisica nuclear y aplicaciones alafna

    Recursos humanos.-´

    Investigadores Universidad de Chile

    Arellano, HugoDr.UCH

    Cancino, SimónM.Cs.UCH

    Dinator, Maria I.M.Cs. UCH*

    Morales, J. RobertoDr.UCH

    Miranda, PedroDr.UCH

    Colaboradores

    Robert Flocchini.UC Davis, California, U.S.A.

    Javier Miranda.UNAM, México.

    Andrea Seelenfreund. Universidad Academia de Humanismo Cristiano

    Rafael Correa. Universidad Tecnológica Metropolitana

    Sergio Montes. Universidad de Santiago

    Claudio Tenreiro.Universidad de Talca

    Mario Ávila. Comisión Chilena de Energía Nuclear

    Raúl Morales. Fac. Ciencias, Universidad de Chile

    Margarita Préndez. Fac. Ciencias Química y Farmacéutica. U. de Chile

    Diego Salazar. Fac. Ciencias Sociales. U. de Chile

    Raúl Muñoz. Fac. de Ciencias Físicas y Matemáticas. U. de Chile


    Roelof bijker and mar a ester brandan unam

    Roelof Bijker and

    María Ester Brandan

    UNAM

    Nuclear Physics in Mexico


    Experimental facilities

    Experimental facilities

    • 6 MV Tandem (ININ)

    • 0.7 and 5.5 MV Van de Graaf and 3 MV Pelletron (IFUNAM)

    • Instrumentation laboratories

      • Pyramid of the Sun and HAWC (IFUNAM)

      • Detector lab (ICNUNAM)

      • Instrumentation labs (Puebla and UMSNH)


    Where

    Where?

    • UNAM, DF, Instituto de Física, Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Fac de Ciencias

    • ININ and Univ. Autónoma del Estado de México, Toluca

    • Cinvestav, DF y Mérida

    • Universidad Veracruzana, Xalapa

    • Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Puebla

    • Universidad Michoacana San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Morelia

    • Universidad Autónoma de Zacatecas, Zacatecas

    • Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa


    How many

    How many?

    • About 20 (10) in basic research and its instrumentation

    • About 30 (10) in applied nuclear physics and its instrumentation

    • Graduate students: About 50


    Subjects basic science

    Subjects: Basic science

    • Nuclear structure (symmetries, cluster models, nuclear masses, double b decay) T

    • Hadronic physics (LE QCD, quark models) T

    • Cosmic rays (Pyramid of the Sun, HAWC) E

    • Neutron physics, fundamental symmetries E

    • International collaborations: T, E

      • ALICE (IFUNAM, ICNUNAM, Cinvestav, BUAP, UAS)

      • Auger (ICNUNAM)

      • RIB ORNL, Notre Dame (IFUNAM, ICNUNAM)

      • LANL (IFUNAM)


    Subjects applied science

    Subjects: Applied science

    • Medical physics (IFUNAM, ICNUNAM, School of Medicine UNAM, UAZ) E

    • Radiation physics E

      • RBS, PIXE, other techniques


    Associacion latino americana de fisica nuclear y aplicaciones alafna

    Nuclear Physics and Applications in Ecuador

    Institutions

    /

    activity

    www.epn.edu.ec

    Escuela Politécnica Nacional (EPN), Quito

    Dept. de Física y Astronomía

    Dept. de Ciencias Nucleares

    • Bulk irradiations (electron, gamma)

    • Atomic absorption (X-rays, UV)

    • Fluorescence and mass analysis

    linac

    Co irradiator

    www.usfq.edu.ec

    • Particle physics (D0 Fermilab)

    Universidad San Francisco de Quito, Quito

    „National Bureau of Control, License and Studies of Nuclear Sciences“(former Atomic Energy Commission)

    www.meer.gov.ec

    • Regulations, safeguards

    • Nuclear techniques (element analysis)

    Dependency of the Ministry of Electricity and Renewable Energy

    Laboratories (e.g. Dosimeter and radiation monitor calibration).

    www.solca.med.ec

    Oncology Society SOLCA, Quito

    • Medical Physics

    • Radiotherapy (electron, photon)

    commercial radiotherapy linacs (e–,g)

    Hospitals (oncology), Quito, Guayaquil

    • Radiotherapy treatments (electron, photon)

    commercial radiotherapy linacs (e–,g)


    Associacion latino americana de fisica nuclear y aplicaciones alafna

    Nuclear Physics inVENEZUELA


    Associacion latino americana de fisica nuclear y aplicaciones alafna

    OIEA

    LASER

    Spectrometer δ18

    Universidad de los Andes

    High Energy Group (3 Ph.D) Dr. Luis Nuñez

    Hydrogeology Group (2 Ph.D) Dr. Hervé Jegat

    I.V.I.C.

    60-Co Irradiation Facility. Ing. Paolo Traversa

    Secondary Calibration Lab. Dr. Lila Carrizalez

    Medical Physics Masters Courses

    Official National Training Courses in Radioprotection

    Environmental Radioactivity

    Universidad Central de Venezuela

    Medical Physics Masters Courses. Dr. Rafael Martín (20-25 students / year)

    Lab. Applications Nuclear Tech. In Industry. Dr. Héctor Constan. (L.Cintillation)

    Ministery of Energy

    Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica, National Nuclear Authority. Dr. Héctor Constan

    Regularions & Permissions.

    Training (Through IAEA)

    Monitoring for evaluations and permissions (Gamma Spectroscopy).

    Univ. Centro Occ. Lizandro Alvarado

    TXRF – Chemistry Department. Dra. Lué Meru Marco

    Hospitals & Private Centres

    Ciclotron (18F), PET, LINAC, Gamma Ch., MRI, CT, etc. Dra. Aisa Manzo


    Associacion latino americana de fisica nuclear y aplicaciones alafna

    OIEA

    Universidad Simon Bolivar

    (www.nuclear.fis.usb.ve)

    Last Five years

    New Professionals 29

    Ph.D. Physics 2

    M.Sc. Physics 2

    M.Sc. Chemistry 2

    M.Sc. Eng. Electronic 1

    B.Sc. Physics: 12

    B.Sc. Chemistry 5

    B.Sc. Biology 1

    Electric & Electronic Eng. 6

    Postgraduate abroad 12

    Students 8

    Ph.D. 5

    M.Sc. 6

    B.Sc. 5

    Researchers 8

    Prof. L. Sajo-Bohus

    Prof. E. Greaves

    Dr. P. Nemeth

    Prof. J. Liendo

    Prof. D. Palacios

    Prof. H. Barros

    Prof. M. Bernal

    Prof. F. Rodríguez

    Techniques and devices

    Ion Implanter (0,4 MeV)

    Neutron Source (Cf)

    Alpha (Si) & Gamma Spectrometry (HPGe)

    TXRF & DRX

    TLD and SSNTD

    Co & Cs intense sources

    BGO, NaI(Tl) and Cherenkov

    Abroad

    NAA

    Ion Beam Analysis

    AMS, ICPMS & TIMS

    Support Staff 3

    2 Tech. + 1 Adm.


    Associacion latino americana de fisica nuclear y aplicaciones alafna

    Física nuclear y aplicaciones en el Perú

    El Instituto Peruano de Energía Nuclear (IPEN)

    cuenta con un reactor de investigación de 10 MW,

    en el cual se produce radioisótopos para medicina y

    se realiza análisis químicos por activación neutrónica.

    Se tiene también una facilidad de neutrografía.

    El IPEN en colaboración con la Universidad Nacional

    de Ingeniería se realiza simulación de experimentos

    de fisión y experimentos de física de reactores.

    Un grupo de la Pontifica Universidad Católica del Perú

    trabaja en el experimento ALICE con el grupo de

    México en el CERN.


    Associacion latino americana de fisica nuclear y aplicaciones alafna

    Conclusions:

    Most countries in the region have small activity in basic Nuclear Physics research. Mostly radiation and medical applications. Very small number of scientists (each country <20).

    Exceptions: Argentina (130), Brazil (400), Mexico(100), including graduate students.

    Region has no large scale facilities in NP, but intense activity around smaller facilities, large number of students.

    Small support from funding agencies even for maintenance of existing facilities.


    Associacion latino americana de fisica nuclear y aplicaciones alafna

    Thank you for your attention


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