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THE DEFINITION AND SCOPE OF APPLIED LINGUISTICS PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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THE DEFINITION AND SCOPE OF APPLIED LINGUISTICS. History of the field. Traditional Latin and Greek through grammar translation. How to learn to speak a L2 fast?. Audiolingualism - the „Army method” Pronunciation and conversation drills Focus on speech No explanation and translation.

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THE DEFINITION AND SCOPE OF APPLIED LINGUISTICS

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The definition and scope of applied linguistics l.jpg

THE DEFINITION AND SCOPE OF APPLIED LINGUISTICS


History of the field l.jpg

History of the field

Traditional Latin and Greek through

grammar translation


How to learn to speak a l2 fast l.jpg

How to learn to speak a L2 fast?

Audiolingualism - the „Army method”

  • Pronunciation and

    conversation drills

  • Focus on speech

  • No explanation

    and translation


How to define language knowledge l.jpg

How to define language knowledge?

Council of Europe Language Project (John Trim)

- notions and functions for Threshold Levels

- rigorous linguistic study

intellectual basis for the development of ELT


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How to best teach a langauge?

Behaviourism and Bloomfieldian Linguistics

  • Discrete items (Bloomfield, structuralism)

  • Contrastive analysis (Lado)

  • Conditioning

    (Pavlov, Skinner)


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Why can’t kids imitate?

Cognitivism and

Generative Grammar

  • Child language research (Berko)

  • Cognitive development (Piaget)

  • LAD (Chomsky)

  • Deep structure – surface structure

  • Competence – performance


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Where do mistakes come from?

SLA research, Error Analysis and Interlanguage Theory

  • Transfer, interference, generalisation

    (Corder, Selinker)

  • Input Hypothesis

    (Krashen)


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„Én röfög kicsi német”

Communicative Competence

  • CALP and BICS (Dell Hymes)

  • Grammatical, discourse, sociocultural,strategic

    competence

    (Canale and Swain)


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Why don’t we say what we mean?

  • Gricean Maxims

    manner

    quality

    quantity

    relevance


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Speech Acts (Austin, Searle)

- John, the phone is ringing!

  • I’m in the bath!

  • Locution

  • Illocution

  • Perlocution


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How to read (between) the lines?

  • Joan: I mean, I don’t like this new emblem at all.

    Claire: The logo.

    Joan: Yeah, the castle on the Trent, It’s horrible.

    Claire: Did you get a chance to talk to him.

    Joan: Yeah.

    Claire: How does he seem?

  • Hey diddle, diddle,

    The cat and the fiddle,

    The cow jumped over the moon,

    The little dog laughed,

    To see such fun,

    And the dish ran away with the spoon.


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„I don’t think it will work out – but maybe it will be useful after all.”

Contrastive rhetoric

  • Cultural thought patterns in writing (R. Kaplan)

    English Semitic Oriental Romance Russian


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The narrow definition of AL:„the showpiece of linguistics”

  • Language teaching theory, language pedagogy

  • Testing ground for linguistics


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The broad definition of AL: „the basket of many goodies”

  • Theoretical orientation:

    sociolinguistics

    psycholinguistics

    pragmatics

    L1 and L2 acquisition

    discourse analysis


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  • Practical orientation

    L1 and L2 teaching

    translation

    discourse and conversation analysis

    language planning

    LSP

    neurolinguistics

    computational linguistics


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What is applied?

The methods and findings of various

disciplines


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New definitions of linguistics

  • Formal linguistics (Strevens)

  • a current best theory of language exists based on linguistics

  • task of the scholar: contribute to the development of theory

  • theory determines what research is needed

  • practice should be restricted to the validated results of that theory


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  • Communicative linguistics

    • problem-driven

    • empirically grounded

    • multi-disciplinary

    • contextualised view of language

    • functionalist approach


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What is linguistics about it?

  • AL investigates language in use

  • linguistic descriptions of language and methods of linguistic enquiry

  • aim is NOT to contribute to descriptions of language, but to solve practical problems


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