Aquatic Invertebrates. Insects: mayflies; caddis; stoneflies; midges; damsel flies; dragonflies, & water boatman. Bloodworms: midge larvae & tubiflex worms Leeches Scuds Snails. Flies to Imitate Trout Foods. Movement: Retrieve to mimic the actual; Size: Use hook sizes and shapes;
Mayflies comprise 20 to 80 percent of a trout’s diet. There are over 700 species in North America.
They emerge from the water surface.
Adult duns and spinners have upright wings.
This is an adult Pale Morning Dun.
Mayflies: Distinguishing Characteristics
Nymph: Most have three tails; others have two
Nymph: Gills are along abdomen
Nymph: One wing pad
Emerger: Most “hatch” in water surface film
Adult: Sail-like upright wings
Habitat: Most species in streams; Nymph body-type/behavior indicates habitat-type.
Mayflies: Behavioral Characteristics
Nymph: Modes of Movement --- Swimmers, Clingers, Crawlers, & Burrowers
Emerger: Duns fly straight upward from the water surface
Adult: After laying eggs, spinners lay on the water surface with spent (out to the side) wings.
Habitat: Most species in streams; Nymph body-type/behavior can indicate habitat-type.
Green Drake nymphs, Drunella grandis and Ephemerella doddsi, and fast water, clinging body type with imitation Hare’s Ear nymph.
Blue Wing Olive adult and nymph with imitation BWO parachute dry fly and pheasant tail nymph
Most have three tails and one wing pad.
Pale Morning Dun nymph with Pheasant Tail and Polyback PMD wet flies
Genus: Leptophlebia and Siphlonuidae
Gills are along the side of abdomen.
One wing pad is common.
Genus: Epeorus and Stenonema
Epeorus has only two tails.
Genus: Hexagenia, nymph and adult
One of the few mayflies that can live in lakes.
There are 1,200 species in North America.
They emerge on the water surface.
Spotted sedge adult and Elk Hair Caddis fly: match color, body shape, legs, and antennae.
Adult wings form a “tent” and are covered with fine hairs.
Imitations: X-Wing Caddis and Elk Wing Caddis
Caddis pupa, Hydropsychidae, and imitation emerger
Free living October caddis larva and portable case larvae with imitation wet flies.
There are 500 species in North America.
The adult wings fold over their body when at rest.
Adults emerge after the nymphs crawl out of the water onto shoreline rocks and vegetation.
Most widespread stonefly species in North America.
Usually emerge from mid-March to mid-April.
Black to dark olive on top of body and a dirty yellow color underneath.
Skwala adult & fly
Nymph require clean, highly oxygenated water.
Nymphs and adults have two tails and antennae.
Nymphs have two or three wing pads.
Bitch Creek nymph
Nymph emergence and adult reproduction occurs in a few days to weeks. Trout gorge themselves in this brief time period.
Di (two) and ptera (wings) are true flies. There are 3,500 species in North America.
These include flies, mosquitoes, crane flies, midges, and gnats.
Larval forms or chironomids slowly float to the water surface to emerge using gases that gradually build in the exoskeleton as they pupate. Fly fishing at the proper depth and with very slow movement is critical to success.
Chironomid pupa can emerge or “hatch” into midge flies all year, mainly when the surface water temps are between 42 and 56 deg. F.
stream bottom & feed on detritus.
enthusiasts for fish food.
The nymphs are voracious predators that crawl to aquatic vegetation to emerge as adults. Nymphs and adults live in the slow margins of streams.
Nymphs have long, slender bodies and three paddle-like gills at the end of the abdomen. Most nymphs are olive or tan and most adult males are blue and black.
Grasshoppers and Crickets
Ants and Termites
Butterflies and Moths