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Human Body Systems You Can’t H ave O ne W ithout T he Other. Body Systems Work Together. If you damage one system, you may damage several like smoking which irritates the lungs and also destroys the cells of the immune system. Ardi Rizal 2 years old Musi Banyuasin , Indonesia

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Human Body Systems You Can’t H ave O ne W ithout T he Other

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Human body systems you can t h ave o ne w ithout t he other

Human Body Systems

You Can’t Have One Without The Other


Human body systems you can t h ave o ne w ithout t he other

Body Systems Work Together

If you damage one system, you may damage several like smoking which irritates the lungs and also destroys the cells of the immune system

Ardi Rizal

2 years old

MusiBanyuasin, Indonesia

May 2010


Human body systems you can t h ave o ne w ithout t he other

If you get excited, the nervous system works with the circulatory system by increasing your heart rate.


Human body systems you can t h ave o ne w ithout t he other

AIDS destroys the Immune System

As a result you may get:

pneumonia (respiratory ),

yeast infection (reproductive ),

Candida affecting esophagus (digestive)

Kaposi’s sarcoma (integumentary).


Human body systems you can t h ave o ne w ithout t he other

The Human Body Team

How does the body get the systems to work together?

To answer this question, we need to recall the organizational structure of multicellular organisms.


Human body systems you can t h ave o ne w ithout t he other

Levels Of Organization

CELLS

ATOMS

TISSUES

ORGAN SYSTEM

ORGANS

ORGANISM


Human body systems you can t h ave o ne w ithout t he other

The Human Body has 4 Main Types of Tissues


Human body systems you can t h ave o ne w ithout t he other

ORGAN

A group of tissues that work together to perform closely related functions.


Human body systems you can t h ave o ne w ithout t he other

Organ

System

A group of organs that work together

to perform a single function

.


Human body systems you can t h ave o ne w ithout t he other

There are 11 organ systems in the human body

1. Integumentary System

2. Skeletal System

3. Muscular System

4. Nervous System

5. Endocrine System

6. Cardiovascular System

7. Lymphatic & Immune System

8. Respiratory System

9. Digestive System

10. Urinary System

11. Reproductive System


Human body systems you can t h ave o ne w ithout t he other

Skeletal System

  • Your skeleton has five major functions.

  • It provides shape and

  • support

  • Enables you to move

  • Protects your internal organs

  • Produces blood cells

  • Stores certain materials until your body needs them


Human body systems you can t h ave o ne w ithout t he other

  • Major Organs of the Skeletal System

  • Bones

  • Tendons connect bones to muscles.

  • Ligaments connect bone to bone.

  • Cartilage cushions places where bones connect and offers flexibility.


Human body systems you can t h ave o ne w ithout t he other

Muscular System

Your muscles control all movements of the body tissues, organs and bones.


Human body systems you can t h ave o ne w ithout t he other

Major Tissues of the

Muscular System

  • Your body has

  • threetypes of

  • Muscle tissue.

  • skeletal muscle

  • smooth muscle

  • cardiac muscle


Human body systems you can t h ave o ne w ithout t he other

Circulatory System aka

Cardiovascular System

  • The main functions is to transport

  • Oxygen

  • Nutrients

  • Waste

  • throughout the body


Human body systems you can t h ave o ne w ithout t he other

  • The main parts of the Circulatory System are:

  • Heart

  • Blood Vessels

  • Blood


Human body systems you can t h ave o ne w ithout t he other

Respiratory System

Your respiratory system moves oxygen from the outside environment into your body. It also removes carbon dioxide and water from your body.


Human body systems you can t h ave o ne w ithout t he other

The Main Parts of the

Respiratory system are:

  • Nose

  • Mouth

  • Trachea

  • Lungs

  • Diaphragm


Human body systems you can t h ave o ne w ithout t he other

The Digestive System

  • The main functions of the digestive system

  • Breaks down food into molecules the body can absorb.

  • Passes these molecules into the blood to be carried throughout the body.

  • Eliminatessolid wastes from the body.


Human body systems you can t h ave o ne w ithout t he other

The Main Parts of the Digestive System are:


Human body systems you can t h ave o ne w ithout t he other

The Excretory System

Your excretory system collects wastes produced by cells and removes these wastes from your body. The removal process is known as excretion.

  • Each kidney is about 4 ½ inches long

  • Weight is 4 – 6 ounces

  • The urine output varies from 1 to 2 liters per day.


Human body systems you can t h ave o ne w ithout t he other

The Main Parts of the Excretory System


Human body systems you can t h ave o ne w ithout t he other

Integumentary System

(it’s your skin)

  • Your Skin has many important functions:

  • Covers body and prevents water loss.

  • Protectsbody from injury and infection.

  • Helps regulate body temperature.

  • Eliminate wastes

  • Gathers information about the environment

  • Produces Vitamin D


Human body systems you can t h ave o ne w ithout t he other

Major Parts of the

Integumentary System

  • Skin

  • Hair

  • Nails


Human body systems you can t h ave o ne w ithout t he other

Immune System

  • It’s role is to protect

  • you from foreign invaders.

  • Special cells react to each kind of pathogen with defensive tactics targeted

  • specifically at that type of

  • pathogen.

  • A pathogen is a

  • bacterium, virus, or other microorganism that can cause disease.


Human body systems you can t h ave o ne w ithout t he other

Specialized Immune System Cells

  • White blood cells that target specific

  • pathogens are called lymphocytes.

  • T-cells and B-cells are two major types of

  • lymphocytes. Each type has a specific job.

B- Cells

T- Cells


Human body systems you can t h ave o ne w ithout t he other

What are Antibodies?

  • Antibodies are special proteins that recognize and defeat invading pathogens.

  • Antibodies are made by the B-cells.

  • Once a pathogen is encountered by the B-cells it memorizes it and next time it encounters the pathogen it will have antibodies ready to fight the pathogen.


Human body systems you can t h ave o ne w ithout t he other

What are Antigens?

  • An antigen is any substance that when introduced into the body stimulates the production of an antibodyimmune response.

  • Antigens include:

  • Toxins

  • Bacteria

  • Foreign blood cells

  • Cells of transplanted organs.


Antigen antibody diagrams

Antigen – Antibody Diagrams

Each antibody binds to a specific antigen by way of an interaction similar to the fit between a lock and a key of enzyme activity.


Human body systems you can t h ave o ne w ithout t he other

What is Immunity?

  • Immunity is a state in which the body has sufficient defenses to fight infection, disease or invasion by pathogens.

  • Non- Specific Immunity refers to the defenses that are in place at all times and are not specific to the pathogen to which the system is responding.

  • Skin, mucous membranes, hairs in nose and ears, enzymes in mouth and tears in eyes.


Human body systems you can t h ave o ne w ithout t he other

  • Specific Immunity is a specific antibody response to the pathogen and has been acquired in one of several ways.

  • Antibodies were transferred from mother to fetus across the placenta.

  • Antibodies were transferred through breast milk from mother to child.

  • Antibodies were built up due to prior exposure to the pathogen.

  • Antibodies were built up through a vaccination process.


Human body systems you can t h ave o ne w ithout t he other

What is a Vaccination?

  • Most vaccines contain a little bit of a disease germ that is weak or dead. Vaccines DONOT contain the type of germ that makes you sick.

  • Having this little bit of the germ inside your body makes your body's immune system build antibodies to it.

  • Vaccines can be administered by a needle, mouth and some thorough a nasal spray.

  • In the US children are vaccinated before they can enter school for: Measles, Mumps, Rubella, Pertussis, Hepatitis B, Diphtheria, and Tetanus


Human body systems you can t h ave o ne w ithout t he other

Lymphatic System

The lymphatic system is an extensive drainage network that helps keep bodily fluid levels in balance and defends the body against infections.

It filters out organisms that cause disease, produces certain white blood cells and generates antibodies.


Human body systems you can t h ave o ne w ithout t he other

Major Parts of the

Lymphatic System

  • It is made up of a network of lymphatic vessels that carry lymph — a clear, watery fluid that contains protein molecules, salts, glucose, urea, and other substances — throughout the body.

  • It works closely with the immune system and the circulatory system.

  • The Spleen stores many of the white blood cells needed for the immune response.


Regents practice question

Regents Practice Question

A pathogen passing from a mother to her fetus could cause

(1) a decrease in the chromosome number of the fetus

(2) an increase in milk production in the mother

(3) gamete production to increase

(4) an infection in the fetus


Regents practice question1

Regents Practice Question

A pathogen passing from a mother to her fetus could cause

(1) a decrease in the chromosome number of the fetus

(2) an increase in milk production in the mother

(3) gamete production to increase

(4) an infection in the fetus


Regents practice question2

Regents Practice Question

It is recommended that people at risk for serious flu complications be vaccinated so that their bodies will produce

(1) antigens to fight the flu virus

(2) antibodies against the flu virus

(3) toxins to fight the infection caused by the flu virus

(4) antibiotics to reduce symptoms caused by the flu virus


Regents practice question3

Regents Practice Question

It is recommended that people at risk for serious flu complications be vaccinated so that their bodies will produce

(1) antigens to fight the flu virus

(2) antibodies against the flu virus

(3) toxins to fight the infection caused by the flu virus

(4) antibiotics to reduce symptoms caused by the flu virus


Human body systems you can t h ave o ne w ithout t he other

Endocrine System

  • 1. The endocrine system is a collection of ductless glands that secrete special proteins called hormones.

  • 2. The glands release the hormones into the bloodstream and they travel to the target cells or organs.

  • 3. The main function of the endocrine system is to maintain a stable environment within the body or homeostasis.

  • 4. The hormones also help the body to regulate:

    • Growth

    • Sexual development

    • Metabolism

    • Sugar, salt and fluid levels in the blood


Human body systems you can t h ave o ne w ithout t he other

Glands and Hormones


Human body systems you can t h ave o ne w ithout t he other

Regents Practice Question

The diagram below shows how a chemical message produced by one cell is

received by other cells.If these chemical messages are destroyed, the target

cells will

(1) produce their own chemical messages

(2) not respond with appropriate actions

(3) develop different receptors

(4) no longer be produced in the organism


Human body systems you can t h ave o ne w ithout t he other

Regents Practice Question

The diagram below shows how a chemical message produced by one cell is

received by other cells.If these chemical messages are destroyed, the target

cells will

(1) produce their own chemical messages

(2) not respond with appropriate actions

(3) develop different receptors

(4) no longer be produced in the organism


Human body systems you can t h ave o ne w ithout t he other

  • Feedback Mechanisms

  • Homeostasis is maintained by the endocrine system through the use of various feedback mechanisms.

  • A feedback mechanism is in use when the biological reaction is actually being controlled by the end products of that reaction.

  • Negative feedback loop are most common.

    • original stimulus reversed

    • most feedback systems in the body are negative

    • used for conditions that need frequent adjustment


Human body systems you can t h ave o ne w ithout t he other

Parts of a Negative Feedback Loop

  • Receptor

  • Structures that monitor a

  • controlled condition and detect

  • changes.

  • Control center

  • Determines next action.

  • Effector

  • Receives directions from the

  • control center produces a

  • response that restores the

  • controlled condition.


Human body systems you can t h ave o ne w ithout t he other

Home Heating System

Thermostat detects a temperature lower than the desired value.

Furnace Turns On

Furnace Turns Off

Thermostat detects a temperature higher than the desired value.


Human body systems you can t h ave o ne w ithout t he other

Body Temperature

Brain senses a drop in body temperature

Impulses

sent to muscles to begin shivering

Impulses sent to muscles to stop shivering

Brain detects increase in body temperature


Human body systems you can t h ave o ne w ithout t he other

Regents Practice Question

Activities in the human body are represented in the diagram

  • Which title would be appropriate for the diagram?

  • Rate of Excretion Varies in Response to Intake of Water

  • (2) Feedback Mechanisms Help to Maintain Homeostasis

  • (3) Respiratory Rate Responds to an Increase in Muscle Activity

  • (4) The Nervous System Responds to Changes in Blood Sugar Levels


Human body systems you can t h ave o ne w ithout t he other

Regents Practice Question

Activities in the human body are represented in the diagram

  • Which title would be appropriate for the diagram?

  • Rate of Excretion Varies in Response to Intake of Water

  • (2) Feedback Mechanisms Help to Maintain Homeostasis

  • (3) Respiratory Rate Responds to an Increase in Muscle Activity

  • (4) The Nervous System Responds to Changes in Blood Sugar Levels


Human body systems you can t h ave o ne w ithout t he other

Glucose Feedback Loop

What happens to a

person’s blood glucose level after eating?

2.What 2 hormones does the pancreas secrete?

3.Which hormone lowers glucose levels?

4. Which hormone raises glucose levels?


Human body systems you can t h ave o ne w ithout t he other

Nervous System

The function of the human nervous system is to control and coordinate functions throughout the body. It does this by responding to internal and external stimuli.

A stimulus is a signal from inside or outside the body that can be detected.

A response is a signal sent to reply to the stimulus.


Human body systems you can t h ave o ne w ithout t he other

Parts of the nervous system

The basic unit of the nervous system is the Neuron.

Messages are picked up from the environment or other neurons by the dendrites and are sent to the cell body; which contains most of the cytoplasm of the cell.


Human body systems you can t h ave o ne w ithout t he other

  • The neuron acts like an electric wire.

  • Electrical impulses travel through theaxon(wire).

  • The axon is insulated by the Myelin sheath which prevents the impulse from leaving the neuron.

  • Messages leave the neuron through the axon terminalswhere they are sent to other neurons.


Human body systems you can t h ave o ne w ithout t he other

What is a

Synapse?

The gaps between the axon terminal of one neuron and the dendrites of another are called synapses.


Human body systems you can t h ave o ne w ithout t he other

What happens at the synapse?

  • As an electrical impulse travels to the axon of a neuron it stimulates the release of neurotransmitters. These are contained in small vesicles at the axon terminals.

  • The neurotransmitter molecules move across the synapse and attach themselves to receptors on the membrane of the next neuron.

  • A neurotransmitter is a chemical that carries messages between different nerve cells or between nerve cells and muscles.


Human body systems you can t h ave o ne w ithout t he other

3 types of neurons

Sensory Neurons

Pick up stimuli from the outside environment or from inside the body. These are found in organs called receptors (skin, eyes, ears, nose, tongue, and glands.) They transmit the message to interneurons.

Interneurons

Receive messages from the sensory neurons and interpret them. They then decide where they should be sent.

Motor Neurons

Receive messages from interneurons and sends them to organs called effectors (muscles and glands).


Human body systems you can t h ave o ne w ithout t he other

REFLEX ARC


Human body systems you can t h ave o ne w ithout t he other

Divisions within

the nervous system

  • The Central Nervous System consists of the Brain and Spinal Cord.

  • The Peripheral Nervous System consists of all the nerves that lie outside the brain and spinal cord


Human body systems you can t h ave o ne w ithout t he other

Central

Nervous

System


Human body systems you can t h ave o ne w ithout t he other

The Peripheral Nervous System


Human body systems you can t h ave o ne w ithout t he other

Reproductive Systems

Female

Male


Human body systems you can t h ave o ne w ithout t he other

What Are Gametes?

  • Gametes are reproductive cells that unite during sexual reproduction to form a new cell called a zygote.

  • In humans, male gametes are sperm and female gametes are eggs or ovums.

  • They contain ½ of the normal chromosome number for the species.

  • Human gametes have 23 chromosomes.

SPERM

EGG


Human body systems you can t h ave o ne w ithout t he other

How Are Gametes Produced?

  • Gametes are made through a special type of cell division called meiosis.

  • In humans, Meiosis occurs in the ovary of the female to produce egg cells and in the testicles of the male to produce sperm cells.


Human body systems you can t h ave o ne w ithout t he other

Meiosis

Diagram

Prophase

Metaphase


Human body systems you can t h ave o ne w ithout t he other

What is Crossing Over?

Crossing over is the exchange of segments between homologous chromosomes resulting in new combinations of genes.

It provides for genetic variety in offspring.


Human body systems you can t h ave o ne w ithout t he other

Regents Practice Question

Which statement concerning the reproductive cells in the diagram below is correct?

(1) The cells are produced by mitosis and contain all the genetic information of the father.

(2) If one of these cells fertilizes an egg, the offspring will be identical to the father.

(3) Each of these cells contains only half the genetic information necessary for the formation of an offspring.

(4) An egg fertilized by one of these cells will develop into a female with the same characteristics as the mother.


Human body systems you can t h ave o ne w ithout t he other

Regents Practice Question

Which statement concerning the reproductive cells in the diagram below is correct?

(1) The cells are produced by mitosis and contain all the genetic information of the father.

(2) If one of these cells fertilizes an egg, the offspring will be identical to the father.

(3) Each of these cells contains only half the genetic information necessary for the formation of an offspring.

(4) An egg fertilized by one of these cells will develop into a female with the same characteristics as the mother.


Human body systems you can t h ave o ne w ithout t he other

Regents Practice Question

The diagram below shows a process that affects chromosomes during meiosis. This process can be used to explain

(1) why some offspring are genetically identical to their parents

(2) the process of differentiation in offspring

(3) why some offspring physically resemble their parents

(4) the origin of new combinations of traits in offspring


Human body systems you can t h ave o ne w ithout t he other

Regents Practice Question

The diagram below shows a process that affects chromosomes during meiosis. This process can be used to explain

(1) why some offspring are genetically identical to their parents

(2) the process of differentiation in offspring

(3) why some offspring physically resemble their parents

(4) the origin of new combinations of traits in offspring


Human body systems you can t h ave o ne w ithout t he other

The Female

Reproductive System

The role of the female reproductive system is to produce eggs, and if an egg is fertilized, to nourish a developing baby until birth.


Human body systems you can t h ave o ne w ithout t he other

Can you name the parts of the female reproductive system?

2.

4.

3.

1.


Human body systems you can t h ave o ne w ithout t he other

Can you name the parts of the female reproductive system?

2. Fallopian tube

4. Uterus

3. Ovary

1. Vagina


Human body systems you can t h ave o ne w ithout t he other

The Male

Reproductive System

  • The role of the male reproductive system is to produce sperm.

  • Sperm are tiny packages ofchromosomes that can swim to fertilize the egg, and the hormone testosterone, which controls the development of the male’s physical characteristics.


Human body systems you can t h ave o ne w ithout t he other

Can you name the parts of the male reproductive system?

1.

3.

2.


Human body systems you can t h ave o ne w ithout t he other

Can you name the parts of the male reproductive system?

1. Penis

3. Vas deferens

2. Testicle


Human body systems you can t h ave o ne w ithout t he other

Regents Practice

The diagram below represents the human malereproductive system. Which activity would be prevented

by blockages at X and Y?

(1) transport of urine out of the body

(2) passage of testosterone to the female to stimulate egg production

(3) movement of sperm out of the body

(4) movement of testosterone to the testes to stimulate sperm production


Human body systems you can t h ave o ne w ithout t he other

Regents Practice

The diagram below represents the human malereproductive system. Which activity would be prevented

by blockages at X and Y?

(1) transport of urine out of the body

(2) passage of testosterone to the female to stimulate egg production

(3) movement of sperm out of the body

(4) movement of testosterone to the testes to stimulate sperm production


Human body systems you can t h ave o ne w ithout t he other

The diagram below represents a system in the human body

The primary function of structure X is to

(1) produce energy needed for sperm to move

(2) provide food for the sperm to carry to the egg

(3) produce and store urine

(4) form gametes that may be involved in fertilization


Human body systems you can t h ave o ne w ithout t he other

The diagram below represents a system in the human body

The primary function of structure X is to

(1) produce energy needed for sperm to move

(2) provide food for the sperm to carry to the egg

(3) produce and store urine

(4) form gametes that may be involved in fertilization


Human body systems you can t h ave o ne w ithout t he other

Fertilization

A sperm enters an egg, and the two nuclei combine to form a zygote with 46 chromosomes.This occurs in the fallopian tube or oviduct.


Human body systems you can t h ave o ne w ithout t he other

Regents PRactice

The diagram below shows stages of human reproduction.

The direct result of fertilization is represented at

(1) A (2) C(3) B (4) D


Human body systems you can t h ave o ne w ithout t he other

Regents PRactice

The diagram below shows stages of human reproduction.

The direct result of fertilization is represented at

(1) A (2) B(3) C (4) D


Human body systems you can t h ave o ne w ithout t he other

Cleavage

The fertilized egg, called a zygote undergoes cell division to produce a two-celled embryo. These cells divide again and again to form a ball of cells. This series of mitotic cell divisions is called cleavage.


Human body systems you can t h ave o ne w ithout t he other

4 Days After Fertilization

  • Four days after fertilization, the embryo is a solid ball of about 50 cells called the morula.


Human body systems you can t h ave o ne w ithout t he other

7 Days After Fertilization

As the embryo grows, a fluid filled cavity forms in the center turning the embryo into a hollow structure. It is now known as a blastula. It secretes enzymes that allow it to embed itself into the wall of the uterus. This is called implantation.


Human body systems you can t h ave o ne w ithout t he other

Regents Practice

Some stages in the development of an organism are represented in the diagram below.Which levels of biological organization do stages 2 and 7 have in common?

(1) cells and organs

(2) tissues and organelles

(3) cells and tissues

(4) organelles and cells


Human body systems you can t h ave o ne w ithout t he other

Regents Practice

Some stages in the development of an organism are represented in the diagram below.Which levels of biological organization do stages 2 and 7 have in common?

(1) cells and organs

(2) tissues and organelles

(3) cells and tissues

(4) organelles and cells


Human body systems you can t h ave o ne w ithout t he other

Regents Practice

The diagram below represents a process that occurs during

human reproduction. The process represented by the arrow will

ensure that the

(1) zygote contains a complete set of genetic information

(2) gametes contain a complete set of genetic information

(3) zygote contains half of the genetic information

(4) gametes contain half of the genetic information


Human body systems you can t h ave o ne w ithout t he other

Regents Practice

The diagram below represents a process that occurs during

human reproduction. The process represented by the arrow will

ensure that the

(1) zygote contains a complete set of genetic information

(2) gametes contain a complete set of genetic information

(3) zygote contains half of the genetic information

(4) gametes contain half of the genetic information


Human body systems you can t h ave o ne w ithout t he other

The human female reproductive system is represented in the diagram below.

Production of gametes and support of the fetus normally occur in structures

(1) 1 and 2 (2) 3 and 5 (3) 2 and 4 (4) 4 and 5


Human body systems you can t h ave o ne w ithout t he other

The human female reproductive system is represented in the diagram below.

Production of gametes and support of the fetus normally occur in structures

(1) 1 and 2 (2) 3 and 5 (3) 2 and 4 (4) 4 and 5


Human body systems you can t h ave o ne w ithout t he other

Sexual reproduction involves the processes listed below.

Processes

A. Differentiation

B. Fertilization

C. Gamete production

D. Mitosis

Which sequence represents the order in which these processes occur?

(1) A → B → C → D

(2) B → A → C → D

(3) C → B → D → A

(4) D → B → C → A


Human body systems you can t h ave o ne w ithout t he other

Sexual reproduction involves the processes listed below.

Processes

A. Differentiation

B. Fertilization

C. Gamete production

D. Mitosis

Which sequence represents the order in which these processes occur?

(1) A → B → C → D

(2) B → A → C → D

(3) C → B → D → A

(4) D → B → C → A


Human body systems you can t h ave o ne w ithout t he other

A dogfish shark contains 24 chromosomes in each of its muscle cells. How many chromosomes are normally found in each of its gametes?

(1) 6 (2) 24(3) 12 (4) 48


Human body systems you can t h ave o ne w ithout t he other

A dogfish shark contains 24 chromosomes in each of its muscle cells. How many chromosomes are normally found in each of its gametes?

(1) 6 (2) 24(3) 12 (4) 48


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