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Chapter 54 Reading Quiz. Which trophic level ultimately supports all of the others? What 2 things limit primary productivity in aquatic ecosystems? Which biogeochemical cycle includes evaporation & precipitation? Which biogeochemical cycle includes photosynthesis & cellular respiration?.

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Chapter 54 Reading Quiz

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Chapter 54 Reading Quiz

  • Which trophic level ultimately supports all of the others?

  • What 2 things limit primary productivity in aquatic ecosystems?

  • Which biogeochemical cycle includes evaporation & precipitation?

  • Which biogeochemical cycle includes photosynthesis & cellular respiration?

1. Distinguish between trophic structure and trophic levels.

  • Trophic structure  the feeding relationships in an ecosystem that determine the paths of energy flow and chemical cycling

  • Trophic levels  ecologists divide the species in a community or ecosystem into different trophic levels based on their main source of nutrition 

2. Overview primary consumers and producers. How are these different from secondary consumers? Tertiary consumers? List examples.

  • Primary producers  autotrophs that support all other trophic levels either directly or indirectly by making sugars

  • Primary consumers  herbivores that consume primary producers

  • Secondary consumers  carnivores that eat the herbivores

  • Tertiary consumers  carnivores that eat the other carnivores 

3. What are detritivores? What do they eat?

  • Detritivores  (decomposers) consumers that derive energy from detritus (organic waste) and dead organisms from other trophic levels

  • These form a major link between primary producers and the consumers in the ecosystem 

4. Differentiate between a food chain and a food web. How does production differ from consumption differ from decomposition?

  • Food chain  the pathway along which food is transferred from trophic level to trophic level, beginning with primary producers

  • Food web  the elaborate feeding relationships between the species in an ecosystem

  • Production  the rate of incorporation of energy and materials into the bodies of organisms

  • Consumption  refers to the metabolic use of assimilated organic molecules for organismal growth and reproduction

  • Decomposition  the breakdown of organic molecules into inorganic molecules 

5. Overview how energy flows through an ecosystem.

  • Energy for growth, maintenance, and reproduction is required by all organisms

  • The ecosystem’s budget relies on primary productivity

  • Light  Plants  Animals  Bacteria/Fungi 

6. Distinguish between gross primary productivity and net primary productivity.

  • Gross primary productivity  the total amount of light energy converted to chemical energy by autotrophs of an ecosystem (measured by the oxygen produced)

  • Net primary productivity  is the GPP minus the energy used by producers for respiration

    - the organic mass available to consumers 

7. What is biomass? What is a limiting nutrient?

  • Biomass  how primary productivity is expressed as amount added to an ecosystem per unit area per unit time (g/m2/yr) or energy (J/m2/yr)

  • Limiting nutrient  when a nutrient has been removed in such quantities that sufficient amounts are no longer available 

8. Overview the ecological pyramids.

  • The transfer of energy from one trophic level to the next is not 100%

  • Energy flows through an ecosystem, it does not cycle

  • The pyramids can symbolize:

    1. Productivity in the trophic levels

    2. Biomass

    3. Numbers of individuals 

9. List the biogeochemical cycles. Why is it necessary for nutrients to cycle?

  • Biogeochemical cycles  nutrient circuits involving both biotic and abiotic components of ecosystems

  • Water

  • Carbon

  • Nitrogen

  • Phosphorus

  • Necessary for life to continue 

10. Overview the water cycle, the carbon cycle, the nitrogen cycle, and the phosphorus cycle.

  • Water  evaporation, precipitation

  • Carbon  photosynthesis, cellular respiration

  • Nitrogen  needed for amino acids, nitrogen is fixed, plants take it up, animals eat the plants, death and waste enter soil, bacteria nitrify it back to the atmosphere

  • Phosphorus  needed for nucleic acids, membranes, ATP, short and long term cycles 

11. Describe what happens in decomposition.

  • The rate of decomposition has a great impact on the timetable for nutrient cycling

  • In tropical rain forests: months to years

  • In temperate forests: 4 – 6 years

  • In the tundra: over 50 years

  • Soil chemistry and fire frequency influence 

12. How does vegetation regulate chemical cycling?

  • Plants retain nutrients within an ecosystem

  • If logging and deforestation occur, less nutrients are retained in that area 

13. How are human populations disrupting chemical cycles?

  • Often humans remove nutrients from one part of the biosphere and add them to another

  • Farming exhausts nutrients in an area, and then causes runoff of fertilizers and waste

  • From this, disruptions can flow from one ecosystem to another 

14. Describe the concept of “biological magnification”.

  • Biological magnification  the process by which toxins become more concentrated with each successive trophic level of a food web; results from biomass at each trophic level being produced from a much larger biomass ingested from the level below

  • Ex: mercury and tuna fishing 

15. Describe how humans are causing changes in the atmosphere.

  • Carbon dioxide emissions and the greenhouse effect

    - CO2 doesn’t escape the earth

  • Depletion of atmospheric ozone

    - O3 is broken apart and does not provide the protection from UV rays 

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