America Moves Toward War: Part II
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America Moves Toward War: Part II. Do Now!.

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America Moves Toward War: Part II

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America moves toward war part ii

America Moves Toward War: Part II


America moves toward war part ii

Do Now!

We look forward to a world founded upon four essential human freedoms. The first is freedom of speech and expression – everywhere in the world. The second is freedom of every person to worship God in his own way – everywhere in the world. The third freedom from want… everywhere in the world. The fourth is freedom from fear… anywhere in the world.

-Who is the speaker of this quote?

-What is this quote in reference to?


America moves toward war part ii

Americans Join the War Effort

  • After Japan attacked Pearl Harbor, the Japan Times newspaper said America was “trembling in their shoes”

  • But if America was trembling, it was with rage, not fear

  • “Remember Pearl Harbor” was the rallying cry as America entered WWII


America moves toward war part ii

Selective Service and the G.I.

  • After Pearl Harbor five million Americans enlisted to fight in the war

  • The Selective Service expanded the draft and eventually provided an additional 10 million soldiers

  • Basic training lasted 8 weeks


America moves toward war part ii

Expanding the Military: Women

  • Army Chief of Staff General George Marshall pushed for the formation of the Women’s Auxiliary Army Corps (WAAC)

  • Under this program women worked in non-combat roles such as nurses, ambulance drivers, radio operators, and pilots


America moves toward war part ii

Recruiting and Discrimination

  • Despite discrimination at home, minority populations contributed to the war effort

  • 1,000,000 African Americans served in the military

  • 300,000 Mexican-Americans

  • 33,000 Japanese Americans

  • 25,000 Native Americans

  • 13,000 Chinese Americans

These “Golden 13” Great Lakes officers scored the highest marks ever on the Officers exam in 1944


America moves toward war part ii

A Production Miracle

  • Americans converted their auto industry into a war industry

  • The nation’s automobile plants began to produce tanks, planes, boats, and command cars

  • Many other industries also converted to war-related supplies


America moves toward war part ii

Labor's Contribution

  • By 1944, nearly 18 million workers were laboring in war industries (3x the # in 1941)

  • More than 6 million of these were women

    • Earned less than what men earned

    • Employers could not hire enough women when they realized that women could do the same work as men

  • Nearly 2 million were minorities

    • A. Philip Randolph

    • Executive Order 8802


America moves toward war part ii

Hollywood Helps Mobilization

  • The following is a few films that were created to inspire U.S. involvement:

    • The Ramparts We Watched & Baptism of Fire (1940)

    • Why We Fight (1942 -)

    • Hitler, Beast of Berlin (1939)

    • Confessions of a Nazi Spy (1939)

  • Most Important: Although these films portrayed Nazis in a negative light, the films made during the Second World War did NOT address the Holocaust, nor did they portray Jews


America moves toward war part ii

Mobilization of Scientists

  • In 1941, FDR created the Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD) to bring scientists into the war effort

  • Focus was on radar and sonar to locate submarines

  • Also the scientists worked on penicillin and pesticides like DDT

  • The Manhattan Project


America moves toward war part ii

Federal Gov't Takes Control: Inflation

  • With prices of goods threatening to rise out of control, FDR responded by creating the Office of Price Administration (OPA)

  • The OPA froze prices on most goods and encouraged the purchase of war bonds to fight inflation

Be sure to Review the Chart on Pg. 773


America moves toward war part ii

War Production Board

  • To ensure the troops had ample resources, FDR created the WPB

  • The WPB decided which companies would convert to wartime production and how to best allocate raw materials to those industries


America moves toward war part ii

Collection Drives

  • The WPB also organized nationwide drives to collect scrap iron, tin cans, paper, rags and cooking fat for recycling

  • Additionally, the OPA set up a system of rationing

  • Households had set allocations of scarce goods – gas, meat, shoes, sugar, coffee


America moves toward war part ii

The Pin-Ups!

Betty Grable – An All American Girl! - #1 selling Pin-Up in America

Rita Hayworth - #2 selling Pin-Up in America


America moves toward war part ii

Exit Question

  • Has U.S. mobilization for war evolved? If yes, in what ways? If no, how has it remained the same? Explain your answer.


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