Cell Processes
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Cell Processes. The following are cell process That you are required to know: Mitosis Cytokinesis Photosynthesis Respiration Diffusion Osmosis Active Transport. Mitosis - The process by which the cell’s nucleus divides into two nuclei. Mitosis is a four step process that

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Cell Processes

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Cell processes

Cell Processes


Cell processes

The following are cell process

That you are required to know:

Mitosis

Cytokinesis

Photosynthesis

Respiration

Diffusion

Osmosis

Active Transport


Cell processes

Mitosis - The process by which

the cell’s nucleus divides into two

nuclei.

Mitosis is a four step process that

gets the cell ready for cell division.

Way to remember the phases of mitosis

Please Make Anna Tell!


Cell processes

INTERPHASE:

1. The period between cell

divisions is known as interphase.

During interphase all normal

cell functions are taking place.

The cell is not dividing.

3. Chromosomes

are duplicated

during this phase.

(but you can’t see them!)


Cell processes

Step 1: Prophase - nuclear

membrane begins to disappear.

Chromosomes become visible.


Cell processes

Also in prophase, the centrioles

begin to move to opposite sides

of the cell. The centriolesbegin

to form the spindle (that will

eventually pull the chromatids

apart.


Cell processes

Step 2: Metaphase -

Pairs line up in the middle of

the cell.

Actual Cell Photo of a cel

going through metaphase


Cell processes

Also in metaphase, the spindle

is completely formed and is

pulling on the chromosomes

causing them to line up down

The middle of the cell.


Cell processes

Step 3: Anaphase -chromosomes

split apart and move to opposite

poles.

Actual cell in anaphase


Cell processes

Step 4: Telophase - Last stage

of mitosis. Chromosomes begin to lengthen and nuclear membrane reappears.

Results in two new nuclei

Animal cell in telophase

Plant cell in telophase


Cell processes

Cytokinesis: Cell division

The cell cytoplasm divides and

Cells return to Interphase.


Cell processes

Metabolism -All controlled

chemical reactions by which

cells gain and use energy.


Cell processes

Questions?

1. Can cells make energy?

2. Where do cells get energy?


Cell processes

Answers!

1. No, energy cannot be

created or destroyed . However,

cells can change energy from

one form to another.

In order to get the energy needed

for life processes, plants cells convert

sunlight into food (glucose) and then break

the glucose down to release the energy.

Animals break down injested food to release

the energy stored within it.


Cell processes

The sum of these reactions,

which involve the building up

and breaking down of molecules,

is called metabolism.


Cell processes

Photosynthesis

6CO2+6H2O+ sunlight

(Carbon Dioxide) + (Water)+ (sunlight)

Yields

C6H12O6 + 6O2

(glucose) + (oxygen)


Cell processes

Photosynthesis Defined

Photosynthesis is a process by

which green plants use CO2 , H2O

and light energy and give off

Glucose (sugar) and Oxygen.

**Chlorophyll traps light energy

which is needed to make the

plants food (glucose).


Cell processes

Two Major steps for Photosynthesis

1. Chlorophyll absorbs light energy.

When this occurs the water

molecules split (Oxygen and

Hydrogen.)

2. Hydrogen quickly combines

with Carbon Dioxide (CO2)

forming glucose (C6H12O6).


Cell processes

Respiration -The process by

which cells release energy

from food.

1. Aerobic Respiration

aerobic - containing oxygen

C6 H12O6 + 6O2 = 6CO2 + 6H2O +energy

2. Anaerobic Respiration -

Energy released without Oxygen


Cell processes

Diffusion - process by which food

molecules, oxygen, water and

other materials enter and leave

the cell through the cell

membrane. Substances move

from areas of higher

concentration to areas of lesser

concentration. Cell Energy is not

needed for diffusion.


Cell processes

Osmosis - the diffusion of water

into or out of a cell.

Energy not needed for osmosis.

Water travels from an area of

high concentration to an area

of lower concentration.


Cell processes

Active Transport:

Cells use energy to obtain or

remove materials within the cell.

Substances are “pulled” or

“pushed” out off the cell.


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