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Cell Processes. The following are cell process That you are required to know: Mitosis Cytokinesis Photosynthesis Respiration Diffusion Osmosis Active Transport. Mitosis - The process by which the cell’s nucleus divides into two nuclei. Mitosis is a four step process that

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The following are cell process

That you are required to know:

Mitosis

Cytokinesis

Photosynthesis

Respiration

Diffusion

Osmosis

Active Transport


Mitosis - The process by which

the cell’s nucleus divides into two

nuclei.

Mitosis is a four step process that

gets the cell ready for cell division.

Way to remember the phases of mitosis

Please Make Anna Tell!


INTERPHASE:

1. The period between cell

divisions is known as interphase.

During interphase all normal

cell functions are taking place.

The cell is not dividing.

3. Chromosomes

are duplicated

during this phase.

(but you can’t see them!)


Step 1: Prophase - nuclear

membrane begins to disappear.

Chromosomes become visible.


Also in prophase, the centrioles

begin to move to opposite sides

of the cell. The centriolesbegin

to form the spindle (that will

eventually pull the chromatids

apart.


Step 2: Metaphase -

Pairs line up in the middle of

the cell.

Actual Cell Photo of a cel

going through metaphase


Also in metaphase, the spindle

is completely formed and is

pulling on the chromosomes

causing them to line up down

The middle of the cell.


Step 3: Anaphase -chromosomes

split apart and move to opposite

poles.

Actual cell in anaphase


Step 4: Telophase - Last stage

of mitosis. Chromosomes begin to lengthen and nuclear membrane reappears.

Results in two new nuclei

Animal cell in telophase

Plant cell in telophase


Cytokinesis: Cell division

The cell cytoplasm divides and

Cells return to Interphase.


Metabolism -All controlled

chemical reactions by which

cells gain and use energy.


Questions?

1. Can cells make energy?

2. Where do cells get energy?


Answers!

1. No, energy cannot be

created or destroyed . However,

cells can change energy from

one form to another.

In order to get the energy needed

for life processes, plants cells convert

sunlight into food (glucose) and then break

the glucose down to release the energy.

Animals break down injested food to release

the energy stored within it.


The sum of these reactions,

which involve the building up

and breaking down of molecules,

is called metabolism.


Photosynthesis

6CO2+6H2O+ sunlight

(Carbon Dioxide) + (Water)+ (sunlight)

Yields

C6H12O6 + 6O2

(glucose) + (oxygen)


Photosynthesis Defined

Photosynthesis is a process by

which green plants use CO2 , H2O

and light energy and give off

Glucose (sugar) and Oxygen.

**Chlorophyll traps light energy

which is needed to make the

plants food (glucose).


Two Major steps for Photosynthesis

1. Chlorophyll absorbs light energy.

When this occurs the water

molecules split (Oxygen and

Hydrogen.)

2. Hydrogen quickly combines

with Carbon Dioxide (CO2)

forming glucose (C6H12O6).


Respiration -The process by

which cells release energy

from food.

1. Aerobic Respiration

aerobic - containing oxygen

C6 H12O6 + 6O2 = 6CO2 + 6H2O +energy

2. Anaerobic Respiration -

Energy released without Oxygen


Diffusion - process by which food

molecules, oxygen, water and

other materials enter and leave

the cell through the cell

membrane. Substances move

from areas of higher

concentration to areas of lesser

concentration. Cell Energy is not

needed for diffusion.


Osmosis - the diffusion of water

into or out of a cell.

Energy not needed for osmosis.

Water travels from an area of

high concentration to an area

of lower concentration.


Active Transport:

Cells use energy to obtain or

remove materials within the cell.

Substances are “pulled” or

“pushed” out off the cell.


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