Receivables
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Receivables. Chapter 9. Learning Objectives. Describe the common classes of receivables. Describe the accounting for uncollectible receivables. Describe the direct write-off method of accounting for uncollectible receivables.

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Receivables

Receivables

Chapter 9


Learning objectives

Learning Objectives

  • Describe the common classes of receivables.

  • Describe the accounting for uncollectible receivables.

  • Describe the direct write-off method of accounting for uncollectible receivables.

  • Describe the allowance method of accounting for uncollectible receivables.

  • Compare the direct write-off and allowance methods of accounting for uncollectible accounts.


Learning objectives1

Learning Objectives

  • Describe the accounting for notes receivable.

  • Describe the reporting of receivables on the balance sheet.

  • Describe and illustrate the use of accounts receivable turnover and number of days’ sales in receivables to evaluate a company’s efficiency in collecting its receivables.


Learning objective

Learning Objective

1

Describe the common classes of receivables


Classification of receivables

Classification of Receivables

  • Accounts receivable are normally expected to be collected within a relatively short period, such as 30 or 60 days.


Classification of receivables1

Classification of Receivables

  • Notes receivable are amounts that customers owe for which a formal, written instrument of credit has been issued.


Classification of receivables2

Classification of Receivables

  • Other receivables expected to be collected within one year are classified as current assets. If collection is expected beyond one year, these receivables are classified as noncurrent assets and reported under the caption Investments. Examples of other receivables include:

    • Interest receivable

    • Taxes receivable

    • Receivables from officers or employees


Learning objective1

Learning Objective

2

Describe the accounting for uncollectible receivables


Uncollectible receivables

Uncollectible Receivables

  • Companies often sell their receivables to other companies. This is called factoring the receivables, and the buyer of the receivables is called a factor.


Uncollectible receivables1

Uncollectible Receivables

  • Regardless of how careful a company is in granting credit, some credit sales will be uncollectible. The operating expense recorded from uncollectible receivables is called bad debt expense, uncollectible accounts expense, or doubtful accounts expense.


Uncollectible receivables2

Uncollectible Receivables

  • Some indications that an account may be uncollectible include the following:

    • The receivable is past due.

    • The customer does not respond to the company’s attempts to collect.

    • The customer files for bankruptcy.

    • The customer closes its business.

    • The company cannot locate the customer.


Uncollectible receivables3

Uncollectible Receivables

  • The direct write-off method of accounting for uncollectible receivables records bad debt expense only when an account is determined to be worthless. The allowance method records bad debt expense by estimating uncollectible accounts at the end of the accounting period.


Learning objective2

Learning Objective

3

Describe the direct write-off method of accounting for uncollectible receivables


Direct write off method

Direct Write-Off Method

  • On May 10, a $4,200 account receivable from D. L. Ross has been determined to be uncollectible.


Direct write off method1

Direct Write-Off Method

  • The account written off on May 10 is later collected on November 21.

Reinstatement

entry

Receipt of

cash entry


Learning objective3

Learning Objective

4

Describe the allowance method of accounting for uncollectible receivables


The allowance method

The specific customer accounts cannot be decreased, so a contra account, Allowance for DoubtfulAccounts, is credited.

The Allowance Method

  • On December 31, ExTone Company estimates that a total of $30,000 of the $200,000 balance of their accounts receivable will eventually be uncollectible.


The allowance method1

The Allowance Method

  • The net amount that is expected to be collected, $170,000 ($200,000 – $30,000), is called the net realizable value(NRV) of the receivables. The adjusting entry reduces receivables to the NRV and matches uncollectible expenses with revenues.


The allowance method2

Note that the allowance account credited earlier is debited at the write-off, not Bad Debt Expense.

The Allowance Method

  • On January 21, John Parker’s account of $6,000 is written off because it is uncollectible.


The allowance method3

The Allowance Method


The allowance method4

The Allowance Method

  • During 2014, ExTone Company writes off $26,750 of uncollectible accounts, including the $6,000 account of John Parker. After posting all entries to write off uncollectible amounts, Allowance for Doubtful Accounts will have a credit balance of $3,250 ($30,000 – $26,750).


The allowance method5

The Allowance Method

  • If ExTone Company had written off $32,100 in accounts receivable during 2014, Allowance for Doubtful Accounts would have a debit balance of $2,100.


The allowance method6

The Allowance Method

  • Nancy Smith’s account of $5,000, which was written off on April 2, is later collected on June 10. Two entries are needed: one to reinstate Nancy Smith’s account and a second to record receipt of the cash.

Reinstatement

entry

Receipt of

cash entry


Estimating uncollectibles

Estimating Uncollectibles

  • The allowance method requires an estimate of uncollectible accounts at the end of the period. Two methods are used to estimate the amount debited to Bad Debt Expense.

    • Percent of sales method

    • Analysis of receivables method


Percent of sales method

Percent of Sales Method

  • If ExTone Company’s credit sales for the period are $3,000,000 and it is estimated that 3/4% will be uncollectible, Bad Debt Expense is debited for $22,500 ($3,000,000 x .0075). This approach disregards the balance of $3,250 in the allowance account before the adjustment.


Percent of sales method1

Percent of Sales Method

  • After the following adjusting entry on December 31 is posted, Allowance for Doubtful Accounts will have a balance of $25,750 ($3,250 + $22,500).


Percent of sales method2

Percent of Sales Method


Analysis of receivables method

Analysis of Receivables Method

  • The longer an account receivable is outstanding, the less likely it is that it will be collected. Basing the estimate of uncollectible accounts on how long specific amounts have been outstanding is called aging the receivables.


Analysis of receivables method1

Analysis of Receivables Method

  • The analysis of receivables method is applied as follows:

    • Step 1:The due date of each account receivable is determined.

    • Step 2:The number of days each account is past due is determined.

    • Step 3:Each account is placed in an aged class according to its days past due.

    • Step 4:The totals for each aged class are determined.


Analysis of receivables method2

Analysis of Receivables Method

  • Step 5: The total for each aged class is multiplied by an estimated percentage of uncollectible accounts for that class.

  • Step 6:The estimated total of uncollectible accounts is determined as the sum of the uncollectible accounts for each aged class.


Analysis of receivables method3

Analysis of Receivables Method

  • The preceding steps are summarized in an aging schedule, and this overall process is called aging the receivables.


Analysis of receivables method4

Analysis of Receivables Method


Analysis of receivables method5

Analysis of Receivables Method

  • The estimate based on the age of receivables is compared to the balance in the allowance account to determine the amount of the adjusting entry.


Analysis of receivables method6

Analysis of Receivables Method

  • ExTone Company has an unadjusted credit balance of $3,250 in Allowance for Doubtful Accounts. In Exhibit 1, the estimated uncollectible accounts totaled $26,490. The amount to be added to the allowance account is $23,240 ($26,490 – $3,250). The adjusting entry is as follows:


Analysis of receivables method7

Same amount as the estimated amount determined by the aging process.

Analysis of Receivables Method

  • After the preceding adjusting entry is posted to the ledger, ExTone Company’s Allowance for Doubtful Accounts will have an adjusted balance of $26,490. This is the amount that was determined by aging the accounts.


Analysis of receivables method8

Analysis of Receivables Method

  • If ExTone Company’s unadjusted balance of the allowance account had been a debit balance of $2,100, the amount of the adjustment would have been $28,590 ($26,490 + $2,100).


Comparing estimation methods

Comparing Estimation Methods


Learning objective4

Learning Objective

5

Compare the direct write-off and allowance methods of accounting for uncollectible accounts


Comparing methods

Comparing Methods

  • The primary differences between the direct write-off and allowance methods are summarized below.


Learning objective5

Learning Objective

6

Describe the accounting for notes receivable


Characteristics of notes receivable

Characteristics of Notes Receivable

  • A note receivable, or promissory note, is a written document containing a promise to pay. Characteristics of a promissory note are as follows:

    • The maker is the party making the promise to pay.

    • The payee is the party to whom the note is payable.

    • The face amount is the amount the note is written for on its face.

(continued)


Characteristics of notes receivable1

Characteristics of Notes Receivable

  • The issuance date is the date a note is issued.

  • The due date or maturity date is the date the note is to be paid.

  • The term of a note is the amount of time between the issuance and due dates.

  • The interest rate is the rate of interest that must be paid on the face amount for the term of the note.


Notes receivable

Notes Receivable


Notes receivable1

Notes Receivable

  • The maturity value is the amount that must be paid at the due date of the note, which is the sum of the face amount and the interest.


Due date of a 90 day note

90

days

Due Date of a 90-day Note

  • What is the due date of a 90-day note dated March 16?

    • Days in March31

    • Minus issuance date of note16

    • Days remaining in March 15

    • Add days in April30

    • Add days in May31

    • Add days in June (due date of June 14)14

    • Term of note 90 days


Alternate approach

Alternate Approach

  • Total days in note 90 days

    • Number of days in March 31

    • Issue date of note, March 16(16)

    • Remaining days in March days15

    • Number of days in April30

    • Number of days in May days31

    • Residual days in June(14) days

Answer: June 14


Due date of a 90 day note1

Due Date of a 90-day Note


Accounting for notes receivable

Accounting for Notes Receivable

  • Received a $6,000, 12%, 30-day note dated November 21, 2014, in settlement of the account of W. A. Bunn Company.


Accounting for notes receivable1

Accounting for Notes Receivable

  • On December 21, when the note matures, the firm receives $6,060 from W. A. Bunn Company ($6,000 face amount plus $60 interest).


Accounting for notes receivable2

Accounting for Notes Receivable

  • If W. A. Bunn Company fails to pay the note on the due date, it is considered a dishonored note receivable. The note and interest are transferred back to the customer’s account receivable.


Accounting for notes receivable3

Accounting for Notes Receivable

  • A 90-day, 12% note dated December 1, 2014, is received from Crawford Company to settle its account, which has a balance of $4,000.


Accounting for notes receivable4

Accounting for Notes Receivable

  • Assuming that the accounting period ends on December 31, an adjusting entry is required to record the accrued interest of $40 ($4,000 x 0.12 x 30/360).


Accounting for notes receivable5

Accounting for Notes Receivable

  • On March 1, 2015, $4,120 is received for the note ($4,000) and interest ($120).


Learning objective6

Learning Objective

7

Describe the reporting of receivables on the balance sheet


Reporting receivables on the balance sheet

Reporting Receivables on the Balance Sheet


Learning objective7

Learning Objective

8

Describe and illustrate the use of accounts receivable turnover and number of days’ sales in receivables to evaluate a company’s efficiency in collecting its receivables.


Accounts receivable turnover

Accounts Receivable Turnover

Net Sales

Average Accounts Receivable

=

Accounts Receivable Turnover

  • The accounts receivable turnover measures how frequently during the year the accounts receivable are being converted to cash.


Accounts receivable turnover1

Accounts Receivable Turnover


Number of days sales in receivables

Number of Days’ Sales in Receivables

Average Accounts Receivable

Average Daily Sales

=

Number of Days Sales in Receivables

  • The number of days’ sales in receivables is an estimate of the length of time the accounts receivable have been outstanding.


Number of days sales in receivables1

Number of Days Sales in Receivables


Receivables1

Receivables

The End


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