FEA of a Golf Driver and Golf Ball

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# FEA of a Golf Driver and Golf Ball - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

FEA of a Golf Driver and Golf Ball. Solid Mechanics - ES 240 Adrian Podpirka ABAQUS Project. Outline of Work. Introduction to Golf Goal of Research Theory Modeling Results. Discussion Analysis Conclusion Citations. Golf. Invented in Scotland around 1450s.

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FEA of a Golf Driver and Golf Ball
• Solid Mechanics - ES 240
• ABAQUS Project
Outline of Work
• Introduction to Golf
• Goal of Research
• Theory
• Modeling
• Results
• Discussion
• Analysis
• Conclusion
• Citations
Golf
• Invented in Scotland around 1450s.
• Requires hitting a small ball roughly 200-500 yards into a small hole.
• Different clubs are used depending on distance and arc required.
• During the first shot, the golfer tries to hit it down course as far as possible
Goals of Project
• To determine stress distributions in a golf ball and in a driver.
• To determine natural frequency of the golf ball and driver.
• Attempt to determine percentage of sweet spot and effect of driving distance.
• Learn ABAQUS
FEA & Golf
• Only recently has FEA been used to design clubs.
• Programs are being made specifically to cater to the golf industry.
• Used to analyze swings, slicing, tendency to hook, etc.
Theories
• Golf Ball
• Internal Stresses in the golf ball will arise due to sudden impact and different properties of the two materials
• Ball will deform as drastically as seen in the picture to the right.
• Frequency Measurement
• A closer natural frequency between the ball and the club will lead to an increase in distance.
• Stress Propagation
• Sweet spot occurs symmetrically from propagating waves.
• Allows for wave dispersion before coming in contact with the club face edge.

Young’s Modulus E (GNm^-2)

Poisson’s Ration

Density (kg m^-3)

Note

.0392

.45

1150

Inner Core of Golf Ball

Iononer Resin

.294

.40

950

Outer Core of Golf Ball

Ti-6Al-4V

118

.34

4507

Carbon Fiber

17.2

.31

1545

Standard Shaft Material

Materials
• Golf Ball
• Driver Shaft

T. Iwatsubo et al

B. Wang et al

Geometry of Equipment
• Golf Ball
• Golf Club - Wood Driver

40 cm

44 cm

Shaft length - 1.05 m

Height - 40 mm

Width - 90 mm

Depth - 65 mm

Golf Ball
• loaded linearly ramping to 15000 N.
• Golf Ball
• Sweep meshed with 1600 elements
• Modeled a 44 cm diameter area and partitioned off middle section.
• Traction load placed in between 7 & 9
• Boundary Condition placed directly opposite
• Results
• Internal stresses develop as a result of mismatch of materials on the order of 40 kN.
• Golf ball is seen to deform. This is analogous to the picture shown before.
Natural Frequency
• The closer the frequency between club and ball, the better energy transfer and therefore, farther distance.
• We will test the difference between hollow and solid clubs
• Golf Ball
• Meshed with 124 elements
• Circular edge boundary conditions
• Driver
• Meshed with roughly 169 & 171 elements
• Pinned at top

The hollow bodied club face has a lower frequency then the solid body, closer matching that of the balls.

2D Stress Distribution
• Large deformation occurs in shaft of carbon fiber.
• Stress waves still occurs in driver face but much less then with coupled shaft.
3D Stress

Note: The full 3D club could not be meshed because of element assignment errors in ABAQUS. The Natural frequency of the club could not be found.

Analysis
• Full Analysis of all data and values will be given in the paper.
• The golf balls deformed as theory and practice indicated.
• By tuning golf balls to different clubs, better distances can be obtained. This would require changing either the parameters on the ball or club.
• Since ABAQUS was not able to mesh the merged structure, I had to forgo on the natural frequency aspect of the 3D driver.
Recommendations
• Many of the articles could not be located since Harvard did not have a subscription to them.
• Many parameters
• Using different material parameters in order to optimize values.