The sun our star
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The Sun: Our Star PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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The Sun: Our Star. Hydrostatic Equilibrium. Structure of the Sun. More About the Sun. Helioseismology. Vibrations on the surface depend on the density and temperatures in the interior of the Sun. Nuclear Reactions. Overcoming Electrostatic Repulsion. Nuclear Fusion: Energy for Sun.

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The Sun: Our Star

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The Sun: Our Star


Hydrostatic Equilibrium


Structure of the Sun


More About the Sun


Helioseismology

  • Vibrations on the surface depend on the density and temperatures in the interior of the Sun


Nuclear Reactions


Overcoming Electrostatic Repulsion


Nuclear Fusion: Energy for Sun


Fusion in the Core of the Sun


Energy from Fusion

  • Proton mass = 1.6726 ´ 10-27 kg

  • Four protons = 6.690 ´ 10-27 kg

  • One helium-4 nucleus = 6.643 ´ 10-27 kg

  • Two positrons = 0.0018´ 10-27 kg

  • Neutrino mass even smaller

  • Mass converted per reaction: E = mc24.5 ´ 10-29 kg E = 4 ´ 10-12 Joules

  • Less than a percent (0.7%) of mass


Core Pressure Balance


Testing the Solar Model


Neutrinos from the Sun


Radiation Zone:

  • Photons “random walk” through many layers of the Sun


Convection Zone

  • The gas in the convection layers “bubble” like boiling water

  • Photons of light are aided in their journey to the outer layers of the Sun


Granules


Granules


Granulation and Sunspots

  • The brighter features are hotter due to the laws of thermal radiation

  • What does this imply about the Sunspot?

  • Granules are evidence of convection below the photosphere


Chromosphere and Corona


Magnetic Fields and Charged Particles


Sunspots and Magnetic Fields

  • Sunspots are cold spots on the photosphere

  • Sunspots are“storms” of magnetic field

  • Prominencesand flares are connected tosunspots


Prominences


Solar Flare


The Active Sun: X-ray Image


Sunspot Cycle

  • Number of sunspotspeaks every 11 years

  • Location of sunspotsshifts during cycle

  • Solar cycle is really22 years: magnetic field is reversed in the E-W direction


Babcock Model


Solar Activity Affects Earth


Solar Activity Affects Earth


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