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The Sun: Our Star. Hydrostatic Equilibrium. Structure of the Sun. More About the Sun. Helioseismology. Vibrations on the surface depend on the density and temperatures in the interior of the Sun. Nuclear Reactions. Overcoming Electrostatic Repulsion. Nuclear Fusion: Energy for Sun.

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Helioseismology
Helioseismology

  • Vibrations on the surface depend on the density and temperatures in the interior of the Sun






Energy from fusion
Energy from Fusion

  • Proton mass = 1.6726 ´ 10-27 kg

  • Four protons = 6.690 ´ 10-27 kg

  • One helium-4 nucleus = 6.643 ´ 10-27 kg

  • Two positrons = 0.0018´ 10-27 kg

  • Neutrino mass even smaller

  • Mass converted per reaction: E = mc24.5 ´ 10-29 kg E = 4 ´ 10-12 Joules

  • Less than a percent (0.7%) of mass





Radiation zone
Radiation Zone:

  • Photons “random walk” through many layers of the Sun


Convection zone
Convection Zone

  • The gas in the convection layers “bubble” like boiling water

  • Photons of light are aided in their journey to the outer layers of the Sun




Granulation and sunspots
Granulation and Sunspots

  • The brighter features are hotter due to the laws of thermal radiation

  • What does this imply about the Sunspot?

  • Granules are evidence of convection below the photosphere




Sunspots and magnetic fields
Sunspots and Magnetic Fields

  • Sunspots are cold spots on the photosphere

  • Sunspots are“storms” of magnetic field

  • Prominencesand flares are connected tosunspots





Sunspot cycle
Sunspot Cycle

  • Number of sunspotspeaks every 11 years

  • Location of sunspotsshifts during cycle

  • Solar cycle is really22 years: magnetic field is reversed in the E-W direction





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