Section 15.2
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Section 15.2. Alcohol ’ s Effects on the Body. Objectives. Summarize the effects of intoxication on the body systems. List four factors that affect blood alcohol concentration. Identify three ways that intoxication may lead to death. Health Stats What trend does this graph reveal?.

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Objectives

Section 15.2

Alcohol’s Effects on the Body

Objectives

Summarize the effects of intoxication on the body systems.

List four factors that affect blood alcohol concentration.

Identify three ways that intoxication may lead to death.


Objectives

Health Stats What trend does this graph reveal?

How is reaction time—the time it takes people to respond to a situation—affected by alcohol? Explain how an increase in reaction time affects a person’s safety on the road.


Physical and behavioral effects

Physical and Behavioral Effects

  • Unlike food, alcohol does not have to be digested in the stomach before it is absorbed into the blood.

  • Alcohol gets into a person’s bloodstream within minutes of being consumed.

  • Once in the blood, alcohol circulates throughout the body, where it has widespread effects.


Effects on body systems

Effects on Body Systems

  • Intoxication is the state in which a person’s mental and physical abilities are impaired by alcohol or another substance.

  • Many negative effects on a drinker’s body and behavior accompany intoxication by alcohol.


Objectives

Effects of Intoxication

Nervous System

  • Brain activity slows down.

  • Coordination becomes impaired.

  • Sensations and perception become less clear.

  • Reflexes become sluggish.

Cardiovascular System

  • Heart rate and blood pressure increase.

  • More blood flows to the skin’s surface.

  • Core body temperature decreases.

Digestive System

Excretory System

  • Too much alcohol in thestomach may cause vomiting.

  • Kidneys increase urine production.

  • Drinker loses more water from body than usual.


Effects on behavior

Effects on Behavior

  • As intoxication takes effect, drinkers begin to lose judgment and self-control.

  • At the same time, alcohol decreases drinkers’ natural fears.

  • A blackout is a period of time that the drinker cannot recall.


Blood alcohol concentration

Blood Alcohol Concentration

  • Blood alcohol concentration (BAC) is the amount of alcohol in a person’s blood, expressed as a percentage.

  • The higher a person’s blood alcohol concentration, the more severe the physical and behavioral effects.

  • Blood alcohol concentration is a more reliable measure of intoxication than the number of drinks consumed.


Factors affecting bac

Factors Affecting BAC

  • Rate of Consumption People who have a few drinks in one hour have a higher BAC than people who drink the same amount over several hours.

  • Gender Males generally will have a lower BAC than females.

  • Body Size In general, smaller people—by weight and height—feel the effects of alcohol more than larger people.

  • Amount of Food in the Stomach Drinking on an empty stomach increases the rate of alcohol absorption into the bloodstream.


Objectives

For: More on blood alcohol concentration

Click above to go online.


After drinking ends

After Drinking Ends

  • Once a person stops drinking, BAC begins to decrease.

  • The intoxicating effects of alcohol slowly diminish, and the person’s reflexes and coordination return to normal.

  • Nothing can speed the liver’s ability to break down alcohol.


Hangovers

Hangovers

  • Hangover is a term used to describe the aftereffects of drinking too much alcohol.

  • Symptoms of a hangover include

  • nausea

  • upset stomach

  • headache

  • sensitivity to noise


Life threatening effects

Life-Threatening Effects

  • The short-term effects of intoxication can put a drinker at serious risk.

  • Intoxication increases the risk of death from

  • motor vehicle crashes

  • alcohol overdose

  • interactions of alcohol with other drugs


Motor vehicle crashes

Motor Vehicle Crashes

  • Alcohol is involved in about 40 percent of fatal motor vehicle crashes.

  • Driving While Intoxicated A driver over age 21 caught driving with a BAC that exceeds the legal limit of 0.08 is charged with driving while intoxicated(DWI).

  • Zero Tolerance Laws There is no acceptable BAC for underage drivers. The penalties for underage drivers may be more strict than those for other drivers.


Overdose

Overdose

  • Taking an excessive amount of a drug that leads to coma or death is called an overdose.

  • Alcohol overdose, also called alcohol poisoning, can cause the heart and breathing to stop.

  • Binge drinking is the consumption of excessive amounts of alcohol at one sitting.


Interactions with other drugs

Interactions With Other Drugs

  • Alcohol is a depressant drug.

  • When a person drinks alcohol and takes another depressant, the combination can cause drastic changes in the body.

  • In extreme cases, combining alcohol and other depressants leads to coma or death.


Vocabulary

Vocabulary

intoxication

The state in which a person’s mental and physical abilities are impaired by alcohol or another substance.

blackout

A period of time that an intoxicated person cannot recall.

blood alcohol concentration (BAC)

The amount of alcohol in a person’s blood, expressed as a percentage.

hangover

A term used to describe the aftereffects of drinking too much alcohol.


Vocabulary1

Vocabulary

driving while intoxicated(DWI)

The charge given to a driver over age 21 caught driving with a BAC that exceeds 0.08 percent, or to a driver under the age of 21 with any detectable BAC.

overdose

The consequence of taking an excessive amount of a drug that leads to coma or death.

binge drinking

The consumption of excessive amounts of alcohol at one sitting.


Quicktake quiz

QuickTake Quiz

Click to start quiz.


End of section 15 2 click on this slide to end this presentation

End of Section 15.2

Click on this slide to end this presentation.


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