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Nutrition for Special Situations. Unit 6 HUM-FNW-6 Created by Katie Gilbert Foster Locust Grove High School Nutrition and Food Science. Standard. HUM-FNW-6: Investigate the health and nutrition requirements of individuals and families with special needs.

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Nutrition for special situations

Nutrition for Special Situations

Unit 6


Created by Katie Gilbert Foster

Locust Grove High School

Nutrition and Food Science


  • HUM-FNW-6: Investigate the health and nutrition requirements of individuals and families with special needs.

    • 6.1 Determine the health and nutrition requirements of athletes, young children, and older adults

    • 6.2 Determine the health and nutrition requirements for vegetarians and people with food allergens.

Nutrition for young children
Nutrition for Young Children

  • Ages 6-12 children grow continuously

  • They develop many habits they will carry with them throughout their lifetime.

  • This is the time for parents to set good examples for their children and encourage them to try new foods.

  • DO NOT use food as a reward or punishment.

Nutrition for young children1
Nutrition for Young Children

  • 6 year olds and 12 year olds need different amounts of food but the same types of foods.

  • Children’s appetites are fairly regular so you can judge their energy needs.

  • Just like us they should be getting food from all food groups at each meal

  • They prefer familiar foods but they still need those that are nutrient dense.

Nutrition for young children2
Nutrition for Young Children

  • As they get older they will want more variety and want to try more foods.

  • Their serving sizes will also increase.

  • Each meal should supply about 1/3 of the days needed nutrients and calories.

  • Many children have trouble eating enough foods that meet their nutritional needs.

Nutrition for young children3
Nutrition for Young Children

  • Snacks can provide additional nutrients and can be things that children enjoy.

    • Fresh Fruit

    • Raw Vegetables

    • Low-fat Cheese

    • Yogurt

    • Raisins

    • Whole grain crackers with peanut butter

Nutrition for young children4
Nutrition for Young Children

  • Children who skip breakfast don’t obtain the nutrients they need.

  • Breakfast provide ¼ of the days nutrients

    • Think outside the box: Breakfast

      • Yogurt

      • Tomato soup

        * More important for them to eat breakfast than to skip it.

Nutrition amounts for young children
Nutrition Amounts for Young Children

Ages 9-13 Need…

  • 1 ½ cups Fruit

  • 2 cups Vegetables

  • 5 oz Grains

  • 5 oz Protein

  • 3 cups Dairy

  • 5 tsp Oil

Ages 4-8 Need…

  • 1-1 ½ cups Fruit

  • 1 ½ cups Vegetables

  • 5 oz Grains

  • 4 oz Protein

  • 2 ½ cups Dairy

  • 4 tsp Oil

Nutrition for older adults
Nutrition for Older Adults

  • Foods eaten by older adults need to be more nutrient dense than those younger than them.

  • Older adults

    • Decrease physical activity

    • Need less energy to carry on vital processes

    • Require fewer calories

Nutrition for older adults1
Nutrition for Older Adults

  • Diets of older adults tend to be LOW in the following…

    • Calcium

    • Potassium

    • Fiber

    • Magnesium

    • Vitamins A, C & E

      * For some older adults B12 and D are also concerns.

Osteoporosis in older adults
Osteoporosis in Older Adults

  • Osteoporosis is a major problem for older adults

  • Older woman are at the greatest risk for this because women have less bone mass then men.

  • Women also have more demands on their calcium stores than men because of pregnancies.

  • Hormonal changes after menopause also contribute to osteoporosis.

  • Increasing your calcium after osteoporosis develops will not cure osteoporosis.

Special problem in older adults
Special Problem in Older Adults

  • Limited Income

    • Can’t afford nutritious foods

    • Food Stamp Programs

  • Difficulty in Shopping

    • Cause them to miss meals

    • Some grocery stores deliver for a small fee

    • Meals on Wheels

    • Church and Civil groups

  • Loneliness

    • Unappealing to eat

    • Eating is a social activity for some

    • Senior Centers (nutritious meals & activities)

    • Church & Civic Centers

Nutrition amounts for older adults
Nutrition Amounts for Older Adults

  • Men 51+ Need…

    • 2 Cups Fruit

    • 2 ½ Cups Vegetables

    • 6 oz Grains

    • 5 ½ oz Protein

    • 3 Cups Dairy

    • 6 tsp Oil

  • Woman 51+ Need…

    • 1 ½ cups of Fruit

    • 2 cups of Vegetables

    • 5 oz Grains

    • 5 oz Protein

    • 3 cups of Dairy

    • 5 tsp Oil

Nutrition for athletes
Nutrition for Athletes

  • Athletes have a high need for increased calories

  • 55-60% should come from complex carbohydrates. (whole grain breads, cereals, pasta, rice and starchy vegetables)

  • Choose lean meats and protein

  • Low-fat and fat free dairy products to meet the need for calcium.

  • Fresh fruits and vegetable will furnish the needed vitamins and minerals.

Nutrition for athletes1
Nutrition for Athletes

  • Most athletes can meet their nutrition needs if they are following MyPlate.

  • Added supplements are not necessary unless a registered dietician is consulted and advises that there is a need for this.

    • Costly

    • Ineffective

    • Dangerous

Dehydration in athletes
Dehydration in Athletes

  • Water is most likely to affect sports performance.

  • Loosing a lot of fluids during practice and competitions which can cause dehydration to happen quickly.

    • Before the event begin drinking fluids.

    • During the event drink ½ -1 cup of water in 15 minute intervals.

    • After you should consume more fluids.

Dehydration in athletes1
Dehydration in Athletes

  • Sodium in sports drinks replaces the lost sodium during the event.

  • Water along with a normal well balanced diet can make up for the loss of sodium during an event.

Nutrition for vegetarians
Nutrition for Vegetarians

  • A Vegetarianeats a diet built partly or entirely on plant foods.

  • Lacto-ovo vegetarians include dairy products and eggs.

  • Vegans eat no animal products or animal by-products.

    • Protein sources: legumes, nuts and grains.

Nutrient concerns for vegetarians
Nutrient Concerns for Vegetarians

  • Vitamin D

  • Vitamin B12

  • Calcium

  • Iron

  • Zinc

  • Certain deficiencies can stunt growth in infants, children & teens.

  • They can affect the health of pregnant & lactating woman & their babies

    * People in these groups need to consult a dietitian about their diet to make sure they are consuming the correct nutrients.

Nutrition for those with food allergens
Nutrition for those with Food Allergens

  • A food allergy involves a response to the body’s immune system.

    • Blood Test will verify if you have these allergies.

  • Symptoms May Include

    • Diarrhea

    • Vomiting

    • Skin Rashes

    • Runny Nose

  • Most Common Food Allergies

    -Milk - Eggs

    -Fish - Shellfish

    -Tree nuts -Peanuts

    -Wheat -Soybeans


  • Largen, V., & Bence, D. (2008). Guide to good food. Tinley Parks, Illinois: The Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc.