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EU Grudtvig Project “ Ancient Cities And Reflections To Today’s World ”. “Ancient Cities In Anatolia “ 4 th Partners Meeting Latvia /Riga 20-25 June 2011. Prehistoric Sites in Anatolia. Geographical Setting.

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eu grudtvig project ancient cities and reflections to today s world

EU Grudtvig Project“AncientCitiesAndReflectionsToToday’sWorld”

“Ancient Cities In Anatolia “

4 th Partners Meeting Latvia /Riga 20-25 June 2011

geographical setting
Geographical Setting
  • Whenwe talk aboutAsiaMinor, geographically, werefertothelandmassknown as Anatolia,whichroughlyoccupiestheareacoveredbypresentdayTurkey.
  • ThewordAnatoliacoversmuch of presentTurkey, whereasAsiaMinor is limitedtoCentraland Western portions of thecountry. As generallyreferred, AsiaMinordoesn\'tincludetheeasternTurkey. So, Anatolia, relativelycovers a largerareathanAsiaMinordoes.
history of anatolia
History of Anatolia
  • We don\'t know exactly when and how the Anatolian Peninsula came to be called Asia Minor or Asia, but we have some clues from ancient writers like Homers, Herodotus, Strabo who refer to the land by this name. The name Asia Minor was first clearly used by Ptolemaios in the 2nd C., and in the modern geographical meaning it was used in the first half of the 5th C. In the ancient times, Asia Minor referred to was a much narrower area than what we know today. Asia Minor was used to discriminate the land in question from a larger area Asia Major that covers the continent of Asia. 

Catalhoyuk, the high level of  Civilization of Neolithic period

Detail from the tomb of  Alexander the Great ?


Besidesthe name AsiaMinor, another name is oftenusedtorefertothisarea as well. Anatoliaor Anadolu in Turkishmeans “thelandwherethe sun rises" comesfromtheancientGreek name Anatoleand has beenused since the 3rd C. Anatolia in general covers a largerareathanAsiaMinordoesand is usedtocoverSyria, MesopotamiaandEgypt as well as AsiaMinor. Anatolia is moreoftenusedafterthe 3rd C., and in theByzantinetimes it wasusedreplacingthe name Asia. 

Hattusas, theimperialCapital of Hittites

Catalhoyuk, thehighlevel of  Civilization of Neolithicperiod


Land is borderedbythethreeseasbeing, Pontus Euxinus ( BlackSea ) on north, byAigaiosPelagos (AegeanSea) on west, byThalassa (MediterraneanSea) on southand an innerseaPropontis (sea of Marmara) on thenorthwest. TheSeas of Pontus EuxinusandPropontisareconnectedwith a longnarrowstraitknown as BosporusThrakios (Bosphorus). On his ScythiancampaignPersiankingDariusbuilt a pontoonbridge of boatsandtransported his armyacrosstheBosphorus. Propontissea is separatedfromAigaoisPelagosbyanotherstraitHellespontorDardanelles.

Cavustepe (Sardurihinilli) Urartian fort in EasternTurkey

Gordion, theCapital of PhrygiansandKing Midas\' Tomb in the Background


Similartothat of Darius, XerxesthePersianking on his campaignagainstGreecebuilt a pontoonbridge on DardanellesbetweenthetownsAbydosandSestosthroughwhich his armymovedintoEurope. Pontus Euxinus, accordingtoHerodotus is themostamazingamongtheseasandmostbeautifuland he gives us thelength of thissea as 11,100 stadia (1,250 miles) whereasthe Pontus is roughly 6,000 stadia (750 miles). 

YarimburgazCaveearliesthuman presence in Turkey

Perge, thegreatcity of Hellenisticand Roman Period


Twogreatmountainchainsrunfromwesttoeast, beingPonticmountainchainalongtheBlackSeacoasttothenorthandTaurusmountainchainthatgoesparalleltothecoast of MediterraneanSeaandbendsinwardtowardstheeasternTurkey. Besidesthesetwomainchains, thecountry has manysinglevolcanoesthatscatterfromcentraltoEasternTurkey. Onetomentionhere, Mt. Ararat in easternTurkeywasthe final restingplace of Noah\'s Ark afterthegreatfloodthat is told in thechapterGenesis of theOldTestament. Mt. Ararat is thehighestpeak in thelandwithitselevation of 16,000 feet. Mt. Nemrut on thenorthernshore of Lake Van in easternTurkeythat is at an altitude of roughly 5,500 feet has one of thelargestvolcaniccraters in theworldwith a 4 1/4 milesdiameter. 


Known in ancienttimes as, Mt. Argaeus (Erciyes) located in easternCappadociawith an elevation of 13,000 feetspewedoutvolcanictufathatwasto form unrealvolcanicrockformations of Cappadocia. Mt. Hasanthatmarksthe western border of Cappadocia has an elevation of 10,000 feetanditseruption in thepastplayed a role alongwithMt. Argaeus in formingCappadociaarea. 

BurialMoundforthequeen of theKingAntiochus, southeasternTurkey

Theater at Aphrodisias 


Anatolia has abundance of water. There are great rivers in Anatolia that emerge from various parts of the land and run in various directions. Sangarios river (Sakarya) emerges from Pessinus in Phrygia and after running through Galatia, Phrygia and Bithynia flows into Pontus Euxinus. River Halys with a length of 400 miles emerges from the mountains in eastern Turkey and flows through central Anatolia into Pontus Euxinus. Inside the bent of Halys was the homeland of Hittites.

Perge, thegreatcity of Hellenisticand Roman Period

Euromoswiththetemple of Zeus


Iris river (Yesilirmak) emerging from eastern Anatolia runs through the hinterlands of Pontus area and joins the Pontus Euxinus. Rivers of the Old Testament, Euphrates and Tigris both emerge from eastern Turkey and flow down through respectively Syria and Iraq into Persian Gulf, having in between the ancient land of Mesopotamia. Araxes river rises in eastern Turkey and flows through Caucasus east to the Caspian sea.

Sardis, thecapital of LydianKingdomandthecity of theKingCroesus

Aphrodisias greatcity of antiquity. 


The Kingdom of Urartu

Hittite homeland

Phrygian kingdom at its greatest extent


Persian Empire

Lydian Kingdom 

Alexander the Great\'s Empire

civilizations and periods in anatolia
CivilizationsandPeriods in Anatolia
  • PREHISTORIC PERIOD  500,000 - 2,000 BCE
  • HISTORIC PERIOD  ca, 2,000 BCE onward
  • HITTITES 2,000  - 700 BCE
  • URARTIAN KINGDOM  860 - 580  BCE
  • PHRYGIAN KINGDOM  750 - 600  BCE
  • LYDIAN KINGDOM  680 - 546  BCE
  • PERSIAN PERIOD 546 - 334 BCE
  • ROMAN PERIOD 30 BCE - 395  CE
  • BYZANTINE PERIOD 395 - 1453 CE
  • OTTOMAN PERIOD 1453 - 1923 CE
  • MODERN TURKEY 1923 - Present
  • Laterthe name wasusedforthegreaterpart of theeastern Balkan Peninsula, bounded on thenorthbytheDanubeRiver, on theeastbytheEuxine (BlackSea), on thesouthbythePropontis (Sea of Marmara), theBosporus, theHellespont (Dardanelles), theAegeanSea, andMacedonia, and on thewestbyMacedonia, Paionia, andDardania. AncientThracewaslargelyuncultivatedandcoveredwithforest; mineral deposits, particularly of gold, madetheregion a covetedpossession. TheThracianswere a barbaric, warlikepeoplewhoestablishedtheirownkingdom in the 5th century BC. Thracebecamesuccessively a Macedonian, Roman, andByzantineprovince. 
  • A mountainousregion, withheavyforestsandfertilevalleys, Bithyniaacquiredits name fromtheBithyni, a tribethat had emigratedfromThrace. ThecountrywasconqueredbyCroesus, king of Lydia, in 560 BC and, afterthesubjugation of Lydia bythePersiansfouryearslater; it became a dominion of Persia. In 334 BC AlexandertheGreatoccupiedBithynia. After his death in 323 BC, thecountrywasnominallyruledfor a periodbyAntigonus I, one of theMacedoniangeneralswhopartitionedAlexander\'sempire. About 316 BC AntigonusfoundedNicaea (nowIznik), later a chiefcity of Bithynia. Ledby a nativeprince, Ziboetes, theBithyniansregainedtheirindependenceearly in the 3rd century BC.Thefirstdynasty of BithyniankingswasestablishedbyZiboetes\'s son Nicomedes I (reigned 278-250 BC), whofoundedNicomedia (nowIzmit) in 264 BC andmade it his capital. Bithyniaflourishedunderthesucceedingkings of thedynasty, notablyPrusias I (reigned 237-192 BC); Prusias II (r. 192-148 BC), whofoundedPrusia (now Bursa); Nicomedes II (r. 142-91 BC); andNicomedes III (r. 91-74 BC). In 74 BC Nicomedes III, a closeally of the Romans, bequeathedthekingdomtoRome. Itwasthenunitedwiththe Roman province of Pontus foradministrativepurposes. Later, underByzantinerule, theterritory of Bithyniawasrestrictedto an areawest of theSangariusRiver (now Sakarya River). Itformed a province in theDiocese of Pontus. In AD 1298 BithyniawasoverrunbytheSeljukTurksunder Osman, andthereaftertheregionformed an integralpart of theOttomanEmpire. Bithynia is nowpart of Turkey. 
  • TheMysiansseemtohavebeenThracianswhocrossedovertoAsia at an earlyperiod. Mysiawassubjectto Lydia andlater, underPersianrule, formedwith Lydia one of thesatrapiescreatedbyDarius I. Afterthedeath of AlexandertheGreat, thecountryshared in thevicissitudes of AsiaMinorduringthewarsamong his successors. Mysiabecameimportant in the 3rd century BC as thecenter of thekingdom of Pergamum, a Hellenisticstatethatcontrolledmuch of western AsiaMinor. In 130 BC, Pergamumcameunder Roman rule, andMysiabecamepart of the Roman province of Asia.

Tetrapylonwastheentrance of theAphroditetemple at Aphrodisias 

Norsuntepe, a prehistorictellnearEuphratesriver

  • The region received its name from the Ionians, Greeks who emigrated from the mainland of Greece probably before 1000 BC. The area is mountainous and includes three fertile valleys, watered by the rivers Gediz, Ergene, and Menderes. Ionia was extremely prosperous in ancient times because of a flourishing agriculture and commerce. In the 7th and 6th centuries BC Ionia made important contributions to Greek art and literature, and particularly to philosophy. Great cities grew up, of which Ephesus, Clazomenae, Erythrae, Colophon, and Miletus were the most celebrated. Several cities, such as Miletus and Phocaea, became important commercial centers and sent out colonies westward as far as present-day Spain and northward to the Black Sea. Common interests led the 12 Ionian cities to form a confederacy, within which each city remained autonomous. Smyrna (now Izmir) was originally settled by the Aeolian Greeks, but was later occupied by colonists from Colophon and became an Ionian city. In the 7th and 6th centuries BC the cities of Ionia were involved in a series of wars with the kings of Lydia, to whom Ionia yielded a nominal submission. Ionia exercised a powerful influence on Lydian culture, its own culture being influenced in turn by Lydia. In 546 BC the Ionians came under the sway of Persia, but revolted from Persian rule in 500 BC, assisted by the Greek cities of Athens and Eretria. The revolt was put down, but the participation of Athens and Eretria gave the Persians a pretext for declaring war on Greece. With the defeat of Persia by the Greeks in 479 BC, the Ionian cities became nominally free, but in reality they were dependent on Athens. Around 334 BC Alexander the Great annexed the cities to his Greco-Macedonian empire. Subsequently, Ionia was incorporated into the Roman and Byzantine empires.
  • Thecountrywasknownto Homer underthe name Maeonia. Itwascelebratedforfertilesoil, richdeposits of goldandsilver, and a magnificentcapital, Sardis. Lydia becamemostpowerfulunderthedynasty of theMermnadae, beginningabout 685 BC. Inthe 6th century BC Lydianconqueststransformedthekingdominto an empire. Undertherule of KingCroesus, Lydia attaineditsgreatestsplendor. Theempirecameto an end, however, whenthePersianrulerCyrustheGreatcaptured Sardis about 546 BC andincorporated Lydia intothePersianEmpire. Afterthedefeat of PersiabyAlexander III, king of Macedonia, Lydia wasbroughtunderGreco-Macedoniancontrol. In 133 BC it becamepart of the Roman province of Asia. TheLydiansaresaidtohavebeenthefirstpeopletocoinmoney.


Ephesus has a greattheaterfor 24,000 people

  • TheTaurusMountainsextendintotheinteriorregion, andtheirregularcoastline has numerousdeepinlets. Theislands of RhodesandKoslieoffthecoast. AncientGreekand Roman historiansrecordedthattheoriginalinhabitants of thisregionwerepushedinlandby an influx of peoplecalledCarians. TheCarians, whowerenotable as mercenarysoldiers, had beendrivenfromtheirnativeislands in theAegeanSeabyinvadingGreeks. TheGreeksalsoestablishedcoloniesalongthecoast of Caria, notablyCnidusandHalicarnassus. Inthe 6th century BC, Cariawasincorporatedintothekingdom of Lydia; subsequently, it became a Persiandominion, ruledbyCariankingswhoweresubjecttoCyrustheGreat. Mausoluswasthebestknown of thesemonarchs; his widowbuilttheMausoleum at Halicarnassus, one of the Seven Wonders of theAncientWorld. Inthe 4th century BC, AlexandertheGreatseizedCaria. After his rule, thecountrybecame a partfirst of theSeleucidkingdom of Syriaandlater of thekingdom of Pergamum; in the 2nd century BC, Pergamumwasturnedintothe Roman province of Asia.
  • Theterrain of Lycia wasmountainous, andthehillsandvalleyswerefertile. ThecountrywasoriginallycalledMilyasandinhabitedbytheSolymiandtheTermilae, whoweresubjugatedbytheinvadingLycians. TheLyciansandtheGreeksfirstcameintocontactbeforetheTrojanWar, andtheremains of Lyciantombs, temples, andtheatersshow a markedGreekinfluence. Lycia andCiliciaweretheonlytwocountries of AsiaMinorthatwere not conquered in the 6th century BC byCroesus, king of Lydia. Inthesamecentury, however, theLyciansweredefeatedbythePersiansunderKingCyrustheGreatdespiteheroicresistance. UnderthePersians, Lycia remainedprosperousandvirtuallyautonomous. Alongwiththe rest of AsiaMinor, Lycia wasconqueredbyAlexandertheGreat of Macedonia in the 4th century BC andincorporatedintotheGreco-MacedonianEmpire. In 189 BC theLycianswerevanquishedbythe Romans, underwhomtheycontinuedtoenjoyprosperityandrelativefreedom. Inthe 4th century AD Lycia became a Roman province.
  • Theinhabitants, a mixedrace of aborigines, Cilicians, andGreekcolonists, spoke a languagethatwasprobablyGreek in origin but thatwaschangedthroughtheaddition of barbaricelements. Persiandominationwasfollowedbythearea\'sconquestbyAlexandertheGreat in the 4th century BC. After his deaththecountrywasruledbytheSeleuciddynasty. Later a part of thekingdom of Pergamum, it wasbequeathedtothe Romans withthe rest of thekingdombyAttalus III in 133 BC.

Priene, one of theIonianCities on Aegeancoast

Pergamum, thecapital of thePergamumkingdom

  • The western part of Cilicia (CiliciaTrachia) is mountainousandforested; much of theeasternpart (CiliciaPedias) consists of fertileplains. TheprincipalriversweretheCydnus (now Tarsus), the Adana (now Seyhan), andtheJihun (now Ceyhan); theprincipalcitieswere Tarsus, Seleucia (now Silifke), andIssus, whichwasprosperousduringthe Roman Empire. Fromthe 6th tothe 4th century BC, whenmost of AsiaMinorwasunderthecontrol of thePersianAchaemenids, Ciliciawas an independentkingdompayingtributetoPersiaorpart of a Persiansatrapy. Aftertheconquests of AlexandertheGreat, duringtheHellenisticperiod, fromthe 4th tothe 2nd century BC, most of Ciliciawaspart of theSeleucidEmpire. EasternCiliciawasconqueredbythe Romans in 103 BC, andall of Ciliciabecame a Roman provinceabout 67 BC. Underthe Romans, theregionwasnotedfortheexport of so-calledcilicium, clothmade of goathair, valuedforthemanufacture of tents. Inthe 1st century AD theapostle Paul lived in thecity of Tarsus. Theprovincewaslaterincluded in theByzantineEmpireuntil it wascaptured in the 8th centurybyArabs.
  • As early as 1900 BC, merchantsfromAssyriaestablished a colony in Cappadocia. Fromabout 1750 BC totheformation of thePersianEmpire of theAchaemeniddynasty in the 7th century BC, thisregionwasthecenter of power of theHittites. Later, thePersianscontrolledtheareaanddivided it intotwosatrapies, orprovinces. Thenorthernprovincebecameknown as Cappadocianearthe Pontus, ormerely Pontus; thesouthernarearetainedthe name Cappadocia, bywhich it wasknown in classicaltimes. Aftertheconquest of PersiabyAlexandertheGreatearly in the 4th century BC, Cappadociabecameindependent. Thefirstking of theCappadociandynasty, Ariarathes I (reigned 330-322 BC) paidtributetoAlexander, but Alexander\'ssuccessorswereunabletoconquerthecountry. Later, thekings of CappadociasidedwithRome, then a risingpower, againsttheSeleucidsandagainst Pontus. Cappadociachangedsidesoften in itssupport of thevariousfactionsduringthe Roman civilwars of the 1st century BC. Theindependence of thecountryendedwhenthe Romans supplantedtheCappadociandynastywith a puppetkingabout 40 BC. In AD 17 the Roman emperorTiberiusmadeCappadocia a province of the Roman Empire. Thereafter, theimportance of Cappadocia as a separatepoliticalunitdeclined. Amongtheimportanttowns of Cappadociawerethecapital of thekingdom, Mazaca (now Kayseri), known in Roman times as CaesareaMazaca; Tyana; andMelitene (now Malatya). The modern town of Bogazkoy is on the site of theCappadociantown of Pteria, whichwasbuilt on the site of thecity of Hattushash, capital of theHittiteEmpire.
  • Early in the 1st millennium BC it is believedtohavecomprisedthegreaterpart of theAnatolianPeninsula, but at the time of thePersianinvasion in the 6th century BC it waslimitedtothedistrictsknown as Lesser Phrygia andGreater Phrygia. Lesser Phrygia stretchedwestalongtheshores of theSea of Marmara andtheHellesponttoTroas, a regionafterwardpart of Mysia. Greater Phrygia layfarthereastandinland, wherethePhrygiancapital, Gordion (nearpresent-day Ankara), waslocated. Inthe 3rd century BC theGaulsoccupiedthenorthernpart of Greater Phrygia. Forpurposes of provincialadministrationthe Romans divided Phrygia intotwoparts, attachingthenortheasternparttoGalatiaProvinceandthe western portiontoAsiaProvince. Greater Phrygia was in general a highandbarrenplateau; themostfertileregionwasthevalley of theSangarius. Grapeswerecultivatedextensively, andPhrygianmarble, celebrated in antiquity, wasquarried. Thereligion of thePhrygianswas an ecstaticnatureworship, in whichtheGreatMother of theGods, Rhea, orCybele, and a maledeity, Sabazius, played a prominentpart. Theorgiasticrites of thisreligioninfluencedboththeGreeksandthe Romans.ThePhrygiansarebelievedtohavebeen an Indo-EuropeanpeoplewhoenteredAsiaMinorfromThraceabout 1200 BC andseizedcontrol of thewholecentraltableland. Recordsexist of numerouskings, bearingalternatelythenames of Gordiusand Midas, but theirpowerwasapparentlybrokenbytheinvasions of theCimmerians in the 7th century BC. Inthe 6th century BC Croesus, king of Lydia, conqueredallthatwasleft of Phrygia, whichpassedsuccessivelyundertherule of Persia, Macedonia, Pergamum, andRome.ThePhrygiancap, a clothhead-coveringwornbythePhrygians, wasadoptedbyfreedslaves in Roman times, andthusthiscapbecame a symbol of liberty.
  • Ancientregion of Anatolia, namedfortheGalatians, a GallicpeoplefromEuropewhosettledhere in theearly 3rd century BC. Theregionlies in thebasins of thepresent-dayKizil Irmak and Delice Irmak (rivers), on thegreatcentralplateau of Turkey. Galatiapossessessomeexpanses of fertilesoil, but most of theland is suitableonlyforpasturingthelargeflocks of sheepandgoatsraisedhere. InadditiontotheGauls, manyGreekssettled in theregion, and it eventuallybecameHellenized; theinhabitants, therefore, wereoftenreferredto as Gallo-Graeci. DominatedbyRomethroughregionalrulersfrom 189 BC, Galatiaandadjacentregionsbecame a Roman province in 25 BC. ItwasconqueredbytheSeljuks in the 11th century AD. Paul theApostlevisitedGalatiaandaddressed his EpistletotheGalatianstoseveralchurcheshere.

FirstInternationalTreaty in theworld, betweenHittitesandEgyptians

AncientOrthostatshowingHittitechariotwithwarriors on 

  • ThemountainousareabetweenBithyniaand Pontus on theBlackSeacoast, borderedbytheancientHalysrivertotheeast. The name PaphlagoniaprobablyderivesfromancientLuwianor Pala languageanditsoriginalspellingmighthavebeenPauwa-Lacawana. Thepeoples of thisareawerecalledPaphlagoniansbytheGreeksandmentionedby Homer in his " Iliad " as being on theside of Trojans. Paphlagonianswereone of theearliestpeopleswholived in Anatolia in 1st millennium BC. PaphlagoniawasheavilycolonizedbytheGreeksandtheybuiltnumber of citiesalongitscoast. Althoughanylocalkingdom has neverbeenestablishedhere, it wasthearea, duringtheHittiteperiodthattheHittitekings had todealwithitspeoples. Itwas not a politicalunitandwasannexedandoccupiedbythekings of Bithyniaand Pontus respectively. Itwaswon (63 BC) bythe Romans. 
  • The name Pontus does not occur in recordsbeforethe 4th century BC anddid not comeintocommonuseuntilafterthe time of AlexandertheGreat of Macedonia. BeforeAlexander\'sconquest of Persia in 330 BC, Pontus wasgovernedby a satrap forthePersianEmpire. Thefoundation of thepowerfulkingdom of Pontus waslaidbyMithradates I Ctistes (diedabout 301 BC). His son, Mithradates II (diedabout 265 BC), gainedcontrol of PaphlagoniaandnorthernCappadocia. Themostimportantking of Pontus wasMithradates VI. On his overthrow in 66 BC bythe Roman general PompeytheGreat, thekingdomwasdivided, the western portionbeingjoinedtotheprovince of Bithynia in a Roman provinceknown as Pontus andBithyniaandtheeasternregionbeingassignedtonativeprinces. Theeasternterritorywasconstituted a Roman province in 62 AD and at firstwasjoinedtoGalatia, but in the 4th century AD, underthe Roman emperorConstantine I, it became a separateprovincewiththe name Pontus Polemoniacus.
  • Ancientregion of thewestcoast of AsiaMinor (in present-dayTurkey). Aeoliswas not a geographicterm but a collectivetermforthecitiesfoundedtherebytheAeolians, a branch of theHellenicpeoples. The 12 southerncitiesweregrouped in theAeolianLeague; thesewereTemnos, Smyrna, Pitane, Neonteichos, Aegirusa, Notium, CillaorKilla, Cyme, Gryneum, Larissa, Myrina, andAegae.

Lycianrock-cuttombs at Caunos, southwesternTurkey

Xanthoswas an importantcity of theLycianLeague, Lycia region in southwesternTurkey

  • It is situated in southernAnatoliaandborderedby Phrygia on thenorth, Pamphylia on thesouth, Caria on thewestandCappadocia on theeast. Itwas a mountainouscountry, traversedbytheTaurusrange. Itswarliketribesmaintainedtheirindependenceuntilthecountrywasincorporatedinto a Roman province in theearly 1st cent. A.D.
  • Thisancientdistrict is locatedbetweenGalatiaandCilicia on thenorthandsouthand Phrygia andCappadocia on thewestandeast. Itwasruled at differenttimesbyHittites, Phrygians, Lydians, PersiansandHellenistickingdoms, later it wasincorporatedinto Roman Empireandmade a province of it. Itwasvisitedby Paul andBarnabas (Acts 14.6). ItschiefcitywasIconium.
  • Ancientdistrict of Troad is borderedbytheregions, Mysia in theeast, Aeolis in thesouth, AegeanSea in thewestandDardanelles in thenorth. Thisregion has beenruledbythenatives of Anatolia, since 3rd millennium BC, andinvadedbytheAchaeans in the 13th C. BC. Duringthemigration of Thracians in the 1200s, TroadwaspopulatedbyvariousThracian kin groups.  Inthe 7th C. BC., TroascameunderLydiancontrolandfollowingthedestruction of theLydiankingdombythePersians in the 6th C. BC., it wasruledbythesatrapsappointedbythePersiankings. Intheend of the 5th C. BC., andbeginning of the 4th C. BC., it wasruledby a certainlocalmanZeniswhowasfromthetown Dardanos andcontrolledbythe satrap of Dascylium. On his death, the satrap Pharnabazusappointed his wife Mania toreplacehim. Mania, in additiontopayingregulartributeto Satrap, gathered an army of mercenariesandassistedthePersian satrap in his punishmentcampaignagainstMysiansandPisidians. Although, thelocalcities of Hamaksitos, Larissa andColonairevoltedandsoonsupportedbyIlium, NeandriaandCoyclon, later in 394 BC., Persianswereabletocontroltheareaagain. Withthearrival of Alexanderthegreatafterthevictory at thebattle of Granicus, thewhole of Troasalongwiththe rest of AnatoliacameunderMacedonia. Duringthewar of Diadochoi ( SuccessorstoAlexanderthegreat ), TroadwasruledbyAntigonus, LysimachusandSeleucus in turn. Followingthewarbetweenthe Romans andSeleucidkingdom at thebattle of Magnesia in 190 BC., the Romans wasvictorious, andpresentedthisregiontoEumenes II theking of Pergamum, whoassistedthe Roman armyduringthebattle. Attalus III, thelastking of Pergamumbequeathed his kingdomtothe Roman Empire, andTroadwasannexedbythe Romans andincorporatedintotheprovince of Asia.