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并行算法简介. 解决方案中心 高性能计算部 姜金良. 并行算法基本概念 并行算法分类 并行化方法 并行算法的一般设计方法 并行算法的基本设计技术 并行算法的一般设计过程 并行程序设计方法 并行编程模型. 并行算法: 是一些可同时执行的诸进程的集合,这些进程相互作用和协调动作从而达到给定问题的求解。 并行性条件 数据相关性: 流相关、反相关、输出相关 相关性判别条件 输入集合 I 1 ,I 2 , 输出集合 U 1, U 2, I 1 Λ U 2 = Φ;

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并行算法简介

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I1,I2, U1,U2,

I1U2=;

I2U1=;

U1U2=;


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  • P1 AB+C

  • P2: DAB

    AP1P2

    P1P2


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  • P1 ABC

  • P2 CE+D

    P1CP2


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  • P1 AB+C

  • P2 ADE


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SIMDMIMD


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SIMD

MIMD

MIMD


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  • SPMD


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Y=(A+B(C+DEF))+G 6

Y=(A+G)+B(C+DEF) 5

Y=(A+G+BC)+BD*EF 3


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P1

mem1

communication

mem2

P2


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0

0

0

0

4

1

hot-spot

0

2

4

6

2

3

1

3

5

7

4

5

6

7

0

2

4

6

  • O(P)O(log P)


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  • Gauss-Seidel


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90CPUhot

//

MPI/PVM/OPEN MP


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,


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--


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nG(V,E)Wnxn,D,di,jvivj

dkijvivi-1Dkij=wi,j

dkij=min{dk/2il,dk/2lj}DD1D2 D4 Dn-1D= Dn-1Dk/2Dk +min


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,

:Lapalace

,f(x,y) g(x,y)


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,

,,


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pipelining)

tt1,t2,,tm,

t1

:


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  • : :


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  • ,,


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  • ,.

    ,

    ,

    ,

    :


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PCAM

()

()

,


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PCAM

  • PCAM

    1)

    2)

    3)

    4)


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:


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:


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vs.

vs.

vs.

vs.

:


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()

:


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SPMD

,.,

-/->

Replication Computation,

,

:


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:


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:

  • 1)

    2)

    3)

    4)


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SPMD

:


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-

Fortran,C,Cobol,4GL

Fortran90,HPF,X3H5PVM\MPI

PVPSMPDSM

(SIMD)

MPPClusters


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  • 1),

    2),

    3),

  • 1)

    2)

    3),


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  • 1) ()

    2)

  • 1)

    2)

    3) ,

    4)

    5)


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  • 1) SIMD

    2)

  • 1)

    2) ()

    3)

    4)

    5)

    6)

  • :,

  • :,,


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  • PVP,SMP,DSM

  • 1) :SPMD,MPMD

    2)

    3)

    4)

    5)

    6)

  • OpenMP


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  • MPP

  • 1)

    2)

    3)

    4)

    5)

    6)

  • MPI,PVM


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(Parallel Programming Paradigms):

Phase Parallel

(Divide and Conquer Parallel)

(Pipeline Parallel)

-(Master-Slave Parallel)

(Work Pool Parallel)


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  • ()


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  • tt1,t2,,tm,t1,,


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-

  • :,

  • :


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  • :


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,,. ,. :, P.33~56,P.227~237, 2000.

.. :,1999.

Barry Wilkinson and Michael Allen. Parallel Programming(Techniques and Applications using Networked Workstations and Parallel Computers). Prentice Hall, 1999.

,. . :,2000.

,. . :,1999.

. MPI. :, 2001.


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MPI: http://ww.mpi-forum.org

http://www.mcs.anl.gov/mpi

Pthreads: http://www.oreilly.com

PVM: http://www.epm.ornl.gov/pvm/

OpemMP: http://www.openmp.org

:www.google.com


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