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Measurement and Assessment of Research Results. Four Levels or Scales of Measurement. Nominal Ordinal Interval Ratio. Four Levels or Scales of Measurement. Nominal – A, B, C, or 1, 2, 3 EX: 1 = boys, 2 = girls; 1 = in sports, 2 = not in sports;

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four levels or scales of measurement
Four Levels or Scales of Measurement
  • Nominal
  • Ordinal
  • Interval
  • Ratio
four levels or scales of measurement1
Four Levels or Scales of Measurement
  • Nominal – A, B, C, or 1, 2, 3
    • EX: 1 = boys, 2 = girls;
    • 1 = in sports, 2 = not in sports;
    • 1 = reduced lunch, 2 = not reduced lunch
    • 1 = freshmen, 2 = sophomores, 3 = juniors, 4 = seniors
    • 1 = American, 2 = Canadian, 3 = Mexican
    • 1 = experimental group, 2 = control group
four levels or scales of measurement2
Four Levels or Scales of Measurement
  • Ordinal– Rank from first to last, best to worst. Items are ranked, but the distance between them is unknown and variable.
  • EX: 1st in class, 2nd in class, 3rd in class
  • 1st place in race, 2nd place, 3rd place
  • No. #1 song, #2 song, #3 song
  • Valedictorian, Salutatorian
four levels or scales of measurement3
Four Levels or Scales of Measurement
  • Interval– Rank with equal intervals or distance between numbers; lacks an absolute-zero point
    • EX: A students, B students, C students, D students
  • Fahrenheit, Celsius, IQ,
four levels or scales of measurement4
Four Levels or Scales of Measurement
  • Ratio– Has all the properties of nominal, ordinal, interval scales plus an absolute-zero point
    • EX: A test where someone could miss all answers (number of right answers could equal zero)
    • Annual income, height, weight, response time
other terms
Other terms
  • Testing and assessment
    • Testing – measuring variables with a device
    • Assessment – gathering and integrating data – tests, interviews, observations – to make an evaluation
  • Traits and States
    • Traits – long-term characteristics
      • Free-floating anxiety
    • States – short-term characteristics
      • Situational anxiety
identifying a good test or assessment procedure reliability and validity
Identifying a good test or assessment procedure - Reliability and Validity
  • Reliability – if the student takes the same test multiple times, does he get nearly identical scores
    • Test + retest has pollutants. Familiarity with the test if the time is too short, growth of the individual if the time is too long
identifying a good test or assessment procedure reliability and validity1
Identifying a good test or assessment procedure - Reliability and Validity
  • Split-Half Reliability – split the test in two
    • Ex: odd questions vs even questions, first 25 questions vs next 25 questions
identifying a good test or assessment procedure reliability and validity2
Identifying a good test or assessment procedure - Reliability and Validity
  • Validity – Does the test support the actions we take based on the scores
  • Does it test for the traits we were researching?
  • Gathering evidence supporting the score inference
    • EX: IQ of 130 assures success in college; if many show IQ of 130, but fail college, test may lack validity
    • EX: High scores on algebra aptitude test imply success in algebra class; use validity coefficient or expectancy data to determine. Kids fail algebra, problem with test
achievement vs aptitude tests
Achievement vs Aptitude tests
  • Achievement tests measure degree of learning after a person has been exposed to a specific learning experience
  • Aptitude tests measure broader learning based on information acquired through a lifetime of learning
additional examples of expectancy data aptitude tests
Additional examples of Expectancy Data = Aptitude Tests
  • SAT for college bound imply they will succeed
  • CSAT for teachers imply they will succeed
  • LSAT for law students imply they will succeed
  • MCAT for medical students imply they wil succeed
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