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Backup Methods For a Hot Site. Dieter W. Storr Los Angeles Times 23 August 2005. B/R Methods. Existing Backup Method Experiences Mirroring or Replicating Fast Copy of Data Proposals and Costs Future Technology Lessons learned. Existing Backup Method. From disk (databases) Copy to

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backup methods for a hot site

Backup Methods For a Hot Site

Dieter W. Storr

Los Angeles Times

23 August 2005

b r methods
B/R Methods
  • Existing Backup Method
  • Experiences
  • Mirroring or Replicating
  • Fast Copy of Data
  • Proposals and Costs
  • Future Technology
  • Lessons learned

Dieter W. Storr -- www.storrconsulting.com

existing backup method
Existing Backup Method
  • From disk (databases)
  • Copy to
  • 3490 / 3590-1 / VTS
  • Then, copy to
  • 3590-1 (cartridge)

Dieter W. Storr -- www.storrconsulting.com

slide4

ADABAS 6.2.2 Back-up at LA Times

Dieter W. Storr -- www.storrconsulting.com

b r methods1
B/R Methods

“Companies that relied on

tape or on third-party provider

found in many cases they had difficulty meeting their recovery time objectives.”

Source: http://www.drj.com/articles/spr02/1502-07.html

Dieter W. Storr -- www.storrconsulting.com

b r methods2
B/R Methods

“Flaws in tape-based data backup may beleaving enterprises without key information and could lead to legal exposure under emerging laws such as Sarbanes-Oxley, say data backup and recovery experts. “

Source: 15 Apr 2004 | SearchSecurity.com

Dieter W. Storr -- www.storrconsulting.com

b r methods3
B/R Methods
  • In a survey of 500 IT departments completed … found that as many as 20% of routine, nightly backups fail to capture all data.
  • 40% of IT managers had been unable to recover data from a tape when they needed it
  • More than 23% sought to use data stored on tape backups more than 20 times in a year

Source: 15 Apr 2004 | SearchSecurity.com

Dieter W. Storr -- www.storrconsulting.com

b r methods4
B/R Methods

Are tapes really so bad?

LA Times experiences?

Dieter W. Storr -- www.storrconsulting.com

tape problems
Tape Problems

1 November 2002:

  • Six tape drive errors
  • Delay

Dieter W. Storr -- www.storrconsulting.com

tape problems1
Tape Problems

24 March 2003:

  • Only two channel paths per tape controller were provided
  • Slow restore time

Dieter W. Storr -- www.storrconsulting.com

tape problems2
Tape Problems

5 October 2003:

  • 3590 tape drives were not defined to DFSMS (SMS)
  • ADABAS restore and application test cancelled

Dieter W. Storr -- www.storrconsulting.com

tape problems3
Tape Problems

6 December 2003:

  • VTS problems with GDG datasets
  • End-user functions couldn’t be tested

Dieter W. Storr -- www.storrconsulting.com

tape problems4
Tape Problems

5 August 2004:

  • Restore jobs had to wait for an input tape that was being used by another restore job
  • Delay

Dieter W. Storr -- www.storrconsulting.com

tape problems5
Tape Problems

30 October 2004:

  • Packages didn’t arrive in time, due to a thunderstorm that affected FedEx delivery
  • Major delay

Dieter W. Storr -- www.storrconsulting.com

tape problems6
Tape Problems

30 October 2004:

  • Automated tape library experienced unit address problems during the restore process
  • Delay

Dieter W. Storr -- www.storrconsulting.com

tape problems7
Tape Problems

30 October 2004:

  • VTS logical tapes were not shipped to Wood Dale (HSM level 2, SAR level 2)
  • Delay

Dieter W. Storr -- www.storrconsulting.com

tape problems8
Tape Problems

30 October 2004:

  • Confusion about when to load DRP1 and DRP2 tapes, before or after IPL
  • Delay

Dieter W. Storr -- www.storrconsulting.com

tape problems9
Tape Problems

30 October 2004:

  • ICIS libraries were not backed up to tape
  • Application tests were not possible

Dieter W. Storr -- www.storrconsulting.com

tape problems10
Tape Problems

8 December 2004:

  • Load problems
  • Tapes were loaded before IPL and not after IPL
  • Major delay

Dieter W. Storr -- www.storrconsulting.com

tape problems11
Tape Problems

8 December 2004:

  • Experienced problems when trying to restore MIG1 data, e.G. DRADABC0 job
  • Major delay

Dieter W. Storr -- www.storrconsulting.com

tape problems12
Tape Problems

8 December 2004:

  • Recall sent by FedEx tapes to SunGard
  • One damaged package arrived without tapes
  • Restored DATA one generation back (-1)System was generation (0)

Dieter W. Storr -- www.storrconsulting.com

tape problems13
Tape Problems

21 March 2005:

  • Level 2 tapes for VTS not being sent off-site (but have been on the list)
  • Application team couldn’t test all data

Dieter W. Storr -- www.storrconsulting.com

tape problems14
Tape Problems

5 August 2005:

  • 3590-1 cartridges ejected, not found
    • DSS8370W - TMS SHOWS TAPE N00318 OUT OF AREA “DRP1”,SLOT 00031
  • Delay

Dieter W. Storr -- www.storrconsulting.com

slide24

Time Warner employee data missing

May 2, 2005: 5:51 PM EDT

NEW YORK (CNN) - Time Warner Inc. said Monday that data on 600,000 current and former employees stored on computer backup tapes was lost by an outside storage company and that the Secret Service is now investigating.

Dieter W. Storr -- www.storrconsulting.com

slide25

Lost Backup Tape Held Ameritrade Client Data

Wednesday, April 20, 2005 - LA Times

… package was damaged during shipping between vendors ….. fourth tape is still missing…… The tapes may have included customers’ Social Security numbers …..

Dieter W. Storr -- www.storrconsulting.com

slide26

Info On 3.9M Citigroup Customers Lost

Monday, June 6, 2005 – CNN.COM

Citigroup, the nation\'s biggest financial services company, said that UPS lost the tapes while shipping them to a credit bureau in Texas.

Dieter W. Storr -- www.storrconsulting.com

costs for tape backups
Costs for Tape Backups
  • SunGard recovery services
  • Offsite tape storage
  • Tape handling
  • Shipping per test
  • Special extra pick-ups

Yearly $150,000

Dieter W. Storr -- www.storrconsulting.com

costs
Costs
  • Not capable to restore one day
    • $$ ???
  • Last December: 2 weeks to rebuild manually (?) customer tables
  • Does it make sense to restore more than 2 days back ??

Dieter W. Storr -- www.storrconsulting.com

costs1
Costs

Example:

20 employees x $140 per day x 10 days

= $28,000

And they couldn’t work on other projects

$140 is based on $51,100 yearly income

Dieter W. Storr -- www.storrconsulting.com

quantitative risk analysis single loss expectancy
Quantitative Risk Analysis Single Loss Expectancy
  • SLE = Single Loss Expectancy
  • EF = Exposure Factor, for example 50% or .50
  • AV = Asset Value, for example $1,000,000

SLE = EF * AV

SLE = .5 x $1,000,000 = $500,000

Dieter W. Storr -- www.storrconsulting.com

b r methods5
B/R Methods

Reducing tapes

Dieter W. Storr -- www.storrconsulting.com

b r methods6
B/R Methods

Reducing tapes

  • Stacking datasets to 3590-1 cartridges
  • Using Delta Save Facility from ADABAS

Dieter W. Storr -- www.storrconsulting.com

b r methods7
B/R Methods

Reducing tapes

  • Using Forward Index Compression (FIC) from ADABAS
  • Using larger block size for 3590 tapes = 256K, supported by ADABAS

Dieter W. Storr -- www.storrconsulting.com

slide34

Delta Save Facility (DSF)

Dieter W. Storr -- www.storrconsulting.com

slide35

Delta Save Facility

Dieter W. Storr -- www.storrconsulting.com

b r methods8

Within an index block the part of the index value that is identical to the forward part of the previous index value is suppressed.

B/R Methods

Forward Index Compression

Rochester Gas & Electric

Space savings:

  • Normal Index: 37% - 55%
  • Upper Index: 21% - 69%

Dieter W. Storr -- www.storrconsulting.com

b r methods9
B/R Methods

IBM Magstar 3494 / Virtual Tape Server (VTS)

SunGard

LA Times

Dieter W. Storr -- www.storrconsulting.com

b r methods10
B/R Methods

VTS problems

LA Times:

  • Completion code A78 RC 18
  • We switched from VTS to 3590-1 cartridges

Dieter W. Storr -- www.storrconsulting.com

b r methods11
B/R Methods

VTS problems

Virginia Information Technologies Agency:

  • Ran 2003/2004 into the same problem system completion code A78 RC 18
  • We … converted … to 3490/3590 physical tapes
  • Problem solved

Dieter W. Storr -- www.storrconsulting.com

b r methods12
B/R Methods

Disk to Disk

  • Mirroring
    • Hardware
    • Software
  • Replicating
    • Software

Dieter W. Storr -- www.storrconsulting.com

b r methods enterprise server
B/R Methods – Enterprise Server

Enterprise Server

NT / 2000 / XP

Hot Site

UNIX

Dieter W. Storr -- www.storrconsulting.com

b r methods open system
B/R Methods – Open System

Hot Site

Dieter W. Storr -- www.storrconsulting.com

b r methods13
B/R Methods

Marty Stewart

Disaster Recovery Manager

AnMed Health:

“…we’d rather have a server that’s running slower than having no server at all.”

Dieter W. Storr -- www.storrconsulting.com

disk mirroring
Disk Mirroring

ASSO

Benefits

  • Asynchronous disk mirroring can provide better physical protection by supporting extended physical distances.
  • No loss of committed transactions in synchronous storage (mirroring/RAID) on a CPU failure

DATA

ASSO

DATA

Dieter W. Storr -- www.storrconsulting.com

disk mirroring1
Disk Mirroring

ASSO

Limitations

  • No protection from data corruption
  • Secondary site is not guaranteed to betransitionally consistent, in the case of asynchronous mirroring.
  • Client application must be re-started after failure and need to be aware of failure

DATA

ASSO

DATA

Dieter W. Storr -- www.storrconsulting.com

disk mirroring2
Disk Mirroring

ASSO

Limitations

  • Synchronous mirroring and RAID devices can add overhead to application performance.
  • Redundant/specialized high availability hardware/software can be expensive and restricted to use for backup purposes only.

DATA

ASSO

DATA

Dieter W. Storr -- www.storrconsulting.com

disk mirroring3
Disk Mirroring

ASSO

Limitations

  • Secondary copy of data is not available for use – low hardware utilization.
  • Need to replicate everything on disk, no selectivity of data replication

DATA

ASSO

DATA

Dieter W. Storr -- www.storrconsulting.com

example for disk mirroring
Example For Disk Mirroring

Back Up / Hot Site

S/390

UNIX

EMC 5700

SRDF remote mirroredsynchronized

OC-3 link

SRDF remote mirroredsynchronized

12-15 miles

EMC 5700

S/390

UNIX

Main Platform

Dieter W. Storr -- www.storrconsulting.com

b r methods14
B/R Methods
  • Can we buy used Enterprise Servers?
  • Yes…..and inexpensive
  • OP system is free for D/R

Search for “selling used mainframes,” for example:

http://www.used-line.com/fdc3236-find-dealer.htm

http://www.azure.co.uk/

etc.

Dieter W. Storr -- www.storrconsulting.com

dedicated line broadband speeds and prices
Dedicated line broadband speeds and prices
  • T-1 - 1.544 megabits per second (24 DS0 lines) Ave. cost $400.-$650./mo.
  • T-3 - 43.232 megabits per second (28 T1s) Ave. cost $6,000.-$16,000./mo.
  • OC-3 - 155 megabits per second (100 T1s)Ave. cost $20,000.-$45,000./mo.
  • OC-12 - 622 megabits per second (4 OC3s) no price
  • OC-48 - 2.5 gigabits per seconds (4 OC12s) no price
  • OC-192 - 9.6 gigabits per second (4 OC48s) no price

Source: http://www.infobahn.com/research-information.htm

prices updated: 12 May 2005

Dieter W. Storr -- www.storrconsulting.com

slide51

Peer-to-Peer Remote Copy Extended Distance (PPRC-XD)

PPRC = 60 miles - PPRC-XD = continent

FlashCopy

ESS Shark

- IBM ESS DASD - HDSalso support PPRC

ESS Shark

Also see TimeFinder from EMC

Dieter W. Storr -- www.storrconsulting.com

external back up systems
External Back-up Systems

Fast Copy of Data

  • Snapshot
    • No data movement
    • A virtual copy by copying pointers
  • Copy Process
    • Physical copy async. from the log. copy
    • No impact on applic. on the original data

Dieter W. Storr -- www.storrconsulting.com

external back up systems1
External Back-up Systems

Fast Copy of Data

  • Specific Hardware Required
    • Software works only with the hardware
  • Work on Volume Level
    • Some snapshot only tools work also on dataset level

Dieter W. Storr -- www.storrconsulting.com

snapshot physical copy
Snapshot & Physical Copy

IBM

  • Hardware: Enterprise Storage Server
  • Software: FlashCopy

http://www.share.org/proceedings/sh98/data/S3087.PDF

EMC2

  • Hardware: Symmetrix Remote Data Facility
  • Software: EMC TimeFinder

http://www.emc.com/interactive_center/media/timefinder/tf_noRC.html

Dieter W. Storr -- www.storrconsulting.com

flash copy
Flash Copy

Dieter W. Storr -- www.storrconsulting.com

how it works
How It Works

Pre-defined time window

Read only: update requests are queued

Suspend

Resume

Read

only

Read / update

Read / update

snap

Source

Data

Snapshot

Physical

Backup

Source: SAG

ADADBS TRANSACTIONS SUSPEND,TTSYN=60,TRESUME=120

Dieter W. Storr -- www.storrconsulting.com

replication
Replication

ASSO

DATA

Benefits

  • Warm standby systems can be configured over a Wide Area Network, providing protection from site failures.
  • Ability to more quickly swap to the standby system in the event of failure, as backup database is already on-line.
  • Data corruptionis typically not replicated as transactions are logically reproduced rather than I/O blocks mirrored.

WORK

WORK

DATA

ASSO

Dieter W. Storr -- www.storrconsulting.com

replication1
Replication

ASSO

DATA

Benefits

  • Automatic switch over for clients using a switching mechanism, no client restart needed.
  • Originating applications are minimally impacted as replication takes place asynchronously after commit of the originating transaction.
  • The warm standby database is available for read-only operations, allowing better utilization of backup systems.

WORK

WORK

DATA

ASSO

Dieter W. Storr -- www.storrconsulting.com

replication2
Replication

ASSO

DATA

Benefits

  • Ability to resynchronize and easily switch back to primary system when it becomes available without loss of data.

WORK

WORK

DATA

ASSO

Dieter W. Storr -- www.storrconsulting.com

replication3
Replication

ASSO

DATA

Limitations

  • Warm standby system will be out-of-date by transactions committed at the active database that have not been applied to the standby.
  • Protection is limited to components supporting Warm Standby (e.g. DBMS data sources may be protected but file systems may not be supported).

WORK

WORK

DATA

ASSO

Dieter W. Storr -- www.storrconsulting.com

entire transaction propagator
Entire Transaction Propagator
  • The Entire Transaction Propagator allows for asynchronous data replication.
  • Replicated data can be updated and synchronized with master data at user specified intervals.

Dieter W. Storr -- www.storrconsulting.com

adabas data replication
ADABAS Data Replication
  • Logical dissemination of ADABAS Data to homogeneous or heterogeneous targets
  • Near real time propagation
  • Event driven at the Transaction level
  • Implemented at the Database/file level for Store, Delete and Update commands
  • Define Replication rules through subscriptions
  • Minimal Impact on normal nucleus activity
  • Strategic for Enterprise Data Sharing
  • Replace Entire Transaction Propagator

Dieter W. Storr -- www.storrconsulting.com

adabas data replication1

Target

Field

Origin

DBMS

Target

Target

Field

File

ADABAS Data Replication

z/OS

Image C

z/OS Image A

File

Target

Target

z/OS

Image B

Unix

Server D

Table

DBMS

Dieter W. Storr -- www.storrconsulting.com

possible hot site solutions
Possible Hot Site Solutions

Enterprise Server Los Angeles

Shark

Shark

EMC

Converter

ESCON

FICON

Fiber Optic

OC3

OC3

OC3

Shark

EMC

EMC

Own Enterprise Server Hot Site

Dieter W. Storr -- www.storrconsulting.com

costs for tape backups1
Costs for Tape Backups
  • SunGard recovery services
  • Offsite tape storage
  • Tape handling
  • Shipping per test
  • Special extra pick-ups

Yearly $150,000

Dieter W. Storr -- www.storrconsulting.com

costs for real disaster
Costs for Real Disaster
  • SunGard Declaration Fee
  • D/R Site Daily Usage Fee
  • Office Space Daily Usage Fee
  • Work Group Declaration Fee
  • Work Group Daily Usage Fee
  • LAN Bridge Declaration Fee
  • LAN Bridge Daily Usage Fee

30 Days $475,000

Dieter W. Storr -- www.storrconsulting.com

costs for own hot site
Costs for Own Hot Site
  • Used IBM Z800-0X2 Mainframe
  • Used IBM 2105-F20 Shark Storage
  • Used IBM 3494 Library, VTS and Tape Drives
  • 3rd Party Next Day HW Maintenance
  • Printer and Terminal Controller Re-location Costs
  • 3490 Tape Drive and Controller Re-location Costs
  • Other Costs

1st Year $520,000After 5 Years Total $735,000

Dieter W. Storr -- www.storrconsulting.com

costs for own hot site1
Costs for Own Hot Site

5 Years SunGard = $750,000

30 Days Real Disaster = $475,000

5 Years Own Facility = $735,000

Dieter W. Storr -- www.storrconsulting.com

restore times min
Restore Times (Min)

Dieter W. Storr -- www.storrconsulting.com

benefits of own hot site
Benefits of Own Hot Site
  • Financial savings > $150,000 annually providing an almost 5% ROI
  • Reduced recovery time
  • Reduced impact due to road and airport closures
  • Elimination of reliance on external vendors
  • Mainframe and open system can use the same facility

Dieter W. Storr -- www.storrconsulting.com

grid computing
Grid Computing

virtual machine

virtual memory

virtual storage

virtual I/O

Dieter W. Storr -- www.storrconsulting.com

grid computing1
Grid Computing

Interface

User

ComputerElement(s)

Passkey

ResourceBroker

HardwareSoftware

Locations

StorageElement(s)

Information Service

ReplicaCatalog

Dieter W. Storr -- www.storrconsulting.com

grid computing2
Grid Computing

Dieter W. Storr -- www.storrconsulting.com

grid computing3
Grid Computing
  • BBC builds distributed grid for content sharing (Gridcast).

62.73.167.57/publicdocs/ppt/prompeg307.ppt

file:///C:/My%20Documents/Dieter/my%20presentations/prompeg307.ppt

Dieter W. Storr -- www.storrconsulting.com

grid computing for backup
Grid Computing For Backup?
  • Intra or Extra Grid?
  • Pull or Push?
  • Grid Software

http://www.gridcomputing.com/

http://www.gridforum.org/ggf_grid_understand.htm

http://gridcafe.web.cern.ch/gridcafe/animations.html

Dieter W. Storr -- www.storrconsulting.com

backup methods
Backup Methods

Mostly used by other companies

Source: DRJ Magazine

  • VTS
  • Disk to disk
    • Is more and more common for enterprise storage servers and AIX server technology, for example.

Source: @server Magazine

Dieter W. Storr -- www.storrconsulting.com

b r methods15
B/R Methods

Problems for other companies

  • High third-party hot site costs, approx. $10,000 - $70,000 per month
  • Restore time24-30 hours

Dieter W. Storr -- www.storrconsulting.com

how far is far enough http www drj com articles spr03 1602 02 html
How Far is ‘Far Enough?’(http://www.drj.com/articles/spr03/1602-02.html)
  • Alternate Facility
  • Offsite Storage Facility

Answer = 105 miles

…so the survey

Dieter W. Storr -- www.storrconsulting.com

lessons learned http www drj com articles spr02 1502 07 html
Lessons Learned (http://www.drj.com/articles/spr02/1502-07.html)
  • Distance is keyStreets, bridges, tunnels, airports are closed
  • Tape recovery is not effective
  • All applications are critical
  • Inconsistent back-up is no back-up at all

Dieter W. Storr -- www.storrconsulting.com

lessons learned http www drj com articles spr02 1502 07 html1
Lessons Learned (http://www.drj.com/articles/spr02/1502-07.html)
  • People-dependent processes do not suffice
  • Two sites are not enough
  • People are hard to replace but information is irreplaceable

Dieter W. Storr -- www.storrconsulting.com

we should have an excellent hot site
…..we should have an excellent HOT SITE!

Dieter W. Storr -- www.storrconsulting.com

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