Folds faults and other records of rock deformation ch 11 grotzinger jordan press siever
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 45

Folds, Faults and Other Records of Rock Deformation Ch.11 Grotzinger, Jordan Press & Siever PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 56 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

Folds, Faults and Other Records of Rock Deformation Ch.11 Grotzinger, Jordan Press & Siever . Concepts you will need to know for the exams. Deformation Normal fault Thrust/Reverse Fault Strike-slip Fault folds Stress tension   compression   shearing

Download Presentation

Folds, Faults and Other Records of Rock Deformation Ch.11 Grotzinger, Jordan Press & Siever

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


Folds faults and other records of rock deformation ch 11 grotzinger jordan press siever

Folds, Faults and Other Records of Rock DeformationCh.11 Grotzinger, Jordan Press & Siever


Concepts you will need to know for the exams

Concepts you will need to know for the exams

  • Deformation

  • Normal fault

  • Thrust/Reverse Fault

  • Strike-slip Fault

  • folds

  • Stress

  • tension 

  • compression 

  • shearing

  • Factors athat determine the amount and type of deformation in a rock

  • Temperature

  • Fluids

  • Pressure

  • How fast materials are deformed

  • Composition

  • Time

  • Fault breccia--- a example of brittle rock deformation

  • Mylonite ----- an example of plastic deformation

  • Joints fracturs and faults

  • Anticlines and Synclines

  • Dome, Valley and Ridge (TN) topography


Concepts you will need to know for the exams

A fold is a bend in a rock…

But, how can this be????

“Inequality is the cause of all local movements” LEONARDO DA VINCI (1452-1519)


Concepts you will need to know for the exams

A fault is a break in a rock across which there is observable movement.

When the break occurred an earthquake was generated, whether or not anyone was there to detect it.

Sometimes faults die at depth and do not break the surface. Sometimes they do such as for the Armenia 1988 earthquake.


Concepts you will need to know for the exams

Directed pressure (cf. confining) in the earth leads to deformation if it is great enough.

Rocks deform under three orientations for the directed pressure or STRESS.


Concepts you will need to know for the exams

The directed stress can have three orientations with respect to vertical:

(Side view)

(Side View)

(Bird’s Eye View)


Concepts you will need to know for the exams

If the sediments are “soft” and folds develop:

(Side view)

(Side View)

HIGHS

HIGHS

LOWS

LOWS

LOWS

(Bird’s Eye View)


Concepts you will need to know for the exams

If the sediments are brittle faults can develop:

(Side view)

(Side View)

(Bird’s Eye View)


Concepts you will need to know for the exams

If the sediments are brittle faults can develop:

(Side view)

(Side View)

(Bird’s Eye View)


Concepts you will need to know for the exams

What is the direction of directed pressure?

How many orientations of faults can be generated for the same directed pressure direction??


Concepts you will need to know for the exams

If the sediments two possible orientations for faults can develop:

(Side view)

(Side View)

(Bird’s Eye View)


Concepts you will need to know for the exams

At least 6 factors control how rock deforms

e.g. at shallow depth a rock may fracture whereas at depth it may flow.

Factors are:

(1) rock type

(2) Confining and directed pressure

(3) temperature

(4) Fluids

(5) Time

(6) Rate of deformation


Concepts you will need to know for the exams

Brittle: Means a rock breaks quickly into sharp pieces, e.g. glass at room temperature

Textures show that rocks break in a brittle fashion at shallow depths inside faults (I.e. fault breccia, fault flour)


Concepts you will need to know for the exams

Ductile-- Means that a rock breaks slowly,or has a lot of “give”

Textures show that rocks break in a ductile fashion at depths of a few kilometers inside faults. The minerals recrystallize, and grow into new shapes


Concepts you will need to know for the exams

Joints are also fractures, but which do not show clear movement of blocks across them.

( Remember: Faults are also fractures but WITH movement across the fractures)


Concepts you will need to know for the exams

Different types of faults imply different directions of shortening and lengthening and can be used to imply different types of plate margin settings:


  • Login