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NUCLEAR FISSION. gamma rays. gamma rays. High speed ‘fission’ fragment. Nuclear fission * the splitting of large nuclei into smaller fragment nuclei. High speed ‘fission’ neutrons. U - 235. There is a small loss in mass after fission has occurred.

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slide1

NUCLEAR FISSION

gamma rays

gamma rays

High

speed

‘fission’

fragment

Nuclear fission

* the splitting of large nuclei into smaller fragment nuclei.

High

speed

‘fission’

neutrons

U - 235

There is a small loss in mass after fission has occurred.

Einstein’s equation: E = mc2 shows how much energy is released.

c = speed of light 300,000,000 m/s and c2 = 9 x 10 16 !!

slide2

gamma rays

gamma rays

gamma rays

gamma rays

Chain reaction

* occurs when one fission event causes further fission events .

In a nuclear bomb two pieces

of pure U 235 or Pu 239

are forced together to exceed

the critical mass of 4.5kg.

Sub critical masses lose

too many neutrons

so the chain reaction

does not take place

U - 235

Fission neutrons

cause

further fission

Fissionable isotopes: Only Uranium -235 is fissionable in the nuclear reactor.

Plutonium -239 is also fissionable and is created from the more common

Uranium 238. ( 99% of natural uranium is U 238.)

slide3

A PWR REACTOR

Boron/steel control rods

absorb surplus neutrons.

Their depth allows one neutron

per fission to produce

one further fission

Fuel rods with enriched U

having 3% U 235

instead of less than 1%

( the rest is U 238)

A moderator slows down the fast moving neutrons

to allow successful collisions with U235 nuclei

slide5

If all the mass in a spoonful of sugar (5g) was converted to energy

by Einstein’s equation: E = mc2

c = speed of light 300,000,000 m/s and c2 = 9 x 10 16

Q1. How much energy is released?

Q2. If the UK needs 50GW of power and power stations are 30% efficient ,

how long could a spoonful of sugar keep the UK supplied with electricity?

E = m x c2

E = 5 x 10 -3 x 9 x 10 16

E = 45 x 10 13 J

slide6

If all the mass in a spoonful of sugar (5g) was converted to energy

by Einstein’s equation: E = mc2

c = speed of light 300,000,000 m/s and c2 = 9 x 10 16

Q1. How much energy is released?

Q2. If the UK needs 50GW of power and power stations are 30% efficient ,

how long could a spoonful of sugar keep the UK supplied with electricity?

E = m x c2

E = 5 x 10 -3 x 9 x 10 16

E = 45 x 10 13 J

slide7

If all the mass in a spoonful of sugar (5g) was converted to energy

by Einstein’s equation: E = mc2

c = speed of light 300,000,000 m/s and c2 = 9 x 10 16

Q1. How much energy is released?

Q2. If the UK needs 50GW of power and power stations are 30% efficient ,

how long could a spoonful of sugar keep the UK supplied with electricity?

% Efficiency = useful power x 100%

total power

total power = 50 x 10 9 x 100%

30%

= 167 x 10 9 W

E = m x c2

E = 5 x 10 -3 x 9 x 10 16

E = 45 x 10 13 J

slide8

If all the mass in a spoonful of sugar (5g) was converted to energy

by Einstein’s equation: E = mc2

c = speed of light 300,000,000 m/s and c2 = 9 x 10 16

Q1. How much energy is released?

Q2. If the UK needs 50GW of power and power stations are 30% efficient ,

how long could a spoonful of sugar keep the UK supplied with electricity?

% Efficiency = useful power x 100%

total power

total power = 50 x 10 9 x 100%

30%

= 167 x 10 9 W

E = m x c2

E = 5 x 10 -3 x 9 x 10 16

E = 45 x 10 13 J

Power = Energy transferred

time

time (sec) = Energy transferred = 45 x 10 13 J = 0.27 x 10 4 sec

Power 167 x 10 9 W

= 45 Mins

slide9

If all the mass in a spoonful of sugar (5g) was converted to energy

by Einstein’s equation: E = mc2

c = speed of light 300,000,000 m/s and c2 = 9 x 10 16

Q1. How much energy is released?

Q2. If the UK needs 50GW of power and power stations are 30% efficient ,

how long could a spoonful of sugar keep the UK supplied with electricity?

% Efficiency = useful power x 100%

total power

total power = 50 x 10 9 x 100%

30%

= 167 x 10 9 W

E = m x c2

E = 5 x 10 -3 x 9 x 10 16

E = 45 x 10 13 J

slide10

If all the mass in a spoonful of sugar (5g) was converted to energy

by Einstein’s equation: E = mc2

c = speed of light 300,000,000 m/s and c2 = 9 x 10 16

Q1. How much energy is released?

Q2. If the UK needs 50GW of power and power stations are 30% efficient ,

how long could a spoonful of sugar keep the UK supplied with electricity?

% Efficiency = useful power x 100%

total power

total power = 50 x 10 9 x 100%

30%

= 167 x 10 9 W

E = m x c2

E = 5 x 10 -3 x 9 x 10 16

E = 45 x 10 13 J

Power = Energy transferred

time

time (sec) = Energy transferred = 45 x 10 13 J = 0.27 x 10 4 sec

Power 167 x 10 9 W

= 45 Mins

slide11

If all the mass in a spoonful of sugar (5g) was converted to energy

by Einstein’s equation: E = mc2

c = speed of light 300,000,000 m/s and c2 = 9 x 10 16

Q1. How much energy is released?

Q2. If the UK needs 50GW of power and power stations are 30% efficient ,

how long could a spoonful of sugar keep the UK supplied with electricity?

% Efficiency = useful power x 100%

total power

total power = 50 x 10 9 x 100%

30%

= 167 x 10 9 W

E = m x c2

E = 5 x 10 -3 x 9 x 10 16

E = 45 x 10 13 J

Power = Energy transferred

time

time (sec) = Energy transferred = 45 x 10 13 J = 0.27 x 10 4 sec

Power 167 x 10 9 W

= 45 Mins

slide12

If all the mass in a spoonful of sugar (5g) was converted to energy

by Einstein’s equation: E = mc2

c = speed of light 300,000,000 m/s and c2 = 9 x 10 16

Q1. How much energy is released?

Q2. If the UK needs 50GW of power and power stations are 30% efficient ,

how long could a spoonful of sugar keep the UK supplied with electricity?

% Efficiency = useful power x 100%

total power

total power = 50 x 10 9 x 100%

30%

= 167 x 10 9 W

E = m x c2

E = 5 x 10 -3 x 9 x 10 16

E = 45 x 10 13 J

Power = Energy transferred

time

time (sec) = Energy transferred = 45 x 10 13 J = 0.27 x 10 4 sec

Power 167 x 10 9 W

= 45 Mins

so 1Kg bag of sugar could keep the national grid running for 6 days!

slide13

Nuclear Bombs

Sub critical masses

slide14

Nuclear Bombs

above

critical mass

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