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Chapter 11


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Chapter 11. The Late Middle Ages: Crisis and Disintegration in the Fourteenth Century. Timeline. A Time of Troubles: Black Death and Social Crisis. “Little Ice Age” Small drop in average temperatures Famine Heavy rain (1315 – 1317) led to food shortages

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Chapter 11

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Chapter 11

Chapter 11

The Late Middle Ages:

Crisis and Disintegration in the Fourteenth Century


Timeline

Timeline


A time of troubles black death and social crisis

A Time of Troubles: Black Death and Social Crisis

  • “Little Ice Age”

    • Small drop in average temperatures

  • Famine

    • Heavy rain (1315 – 1317) led to food shortages

  • Population growth up to 1300 put pressure on food supply


The black death

The Black Death

  • Most devastating natural disaster in European History

  • Bubonic Plague

    • Rats and Fleas

    • Yersinia Pestis

  • Spread of the Plague

    • Originated in Asia

    • Arrived in Europe in 1347

    • Mortality reached 50 – 60 percent in some areas

    • Wiped out between 25 – 50 percent of European population (19 – 38 million dead in four years)

    • Plague returns in 1361 – 1362 and 1369


Map 11 1 spread of the black death

Map 11.1: Spread of the Black Death


Life and death reactions to the plague

Life and Death: Reactions to the Plague

  • Plague as a punishment from God

  • The flagellants

  • Attacks against Jews

  • Violence


Economic dislocation and social upheaval

Economic Dislocation and Social Upheaval

  • Labor Shortage + Falling prices for agricultural products = Drop in aristocratic incomes

  • Statute of Laborers (1351) sought to limit wages

  • Social Mobility

  • Peasant Revolts

    • Jacquerie in France (1358)

    • English Peasants’ Revolt (1381)

  • Revolts in the Cities

    • Ciompi Revolt in Florence (1378)


Chart 11 1 background to the hundred years war kings of france and england

Chart 11.1: Background to the Hundred Years’ War: Kings of France and England


The hundred years war

The Hundred Years’ War

  • Causes

    • Entanglement of French and English royal families

    • King Edward III (1327 – 1377) claims French crown

    • French seize duchy of Gascony (1337) sparking war

  • Conduct and Course of the War

    • Differences in the armies

    • Battle of Crecy (1346)

    • Henry V (1413 – 1422)

      • Battle of Agincourt (1415)

    • Charles the Dauphin (heir to the French throne)

    • Joan of Arc (1412 – 1431)

      • Siege of Orleans

      • Captured by allies of the English in 1430

      • Burned at the stake (1431)

    • Gunpowder

    • War ends with French victory (1453)


Map 11 2 the hundred years war

Map 11.2: The Hundred Years’ War


Political instability

Political Instability

  • Breakdown of Feudal Institutions

    • Scutage

  • New Royal Dynasties

  • Financial Problems

    • Parliaments gain power


The growth of england s political institutions

The Growth of England’s Political Institutions

  • Edward III (1327 – 1377)

    • Parliament

      • House of Lords

      • House of Commons

  • Richard II (1377 – 1399)

    • Aristocratic factionalism

  • Henry IV (1399 – 1413)

    • Deposed Richard II


The problems of the french kings

The Problems of the French Kings

  • Weakness of the French Monarchy

  • Estates-General

    • 1357 meeting

  • Charles VI (1380 – 1422)

    • Competition between the dukes of Burgundy and Orléans to control Charles


Germany italy

Germany & Italy

  • The German Monarchy

    • Breakup of the Holy Roman Empire

    • Hundreds of States

    • Elective Monarchy

      • The Golden Bull (1356)

      • Weak kings


The states of italy

The States of Italy

  • The States of Italy

    • Lack of centralized authority

    • Republicanism to Tyranny

    • Development of regional states

      • Milan

      • Florence

      • Venice


The ponte vecchio venice

The Ponte Vecchio – Venice


The decline of the church

The Decline of the Church

  • Boniface VIII and the Conflict with the State

    • Boniface VIII (1294 – 1303)

      • Conflict with Philip the Fair of France

      • Unam Sanctam (1302)

      • Captured by French at Anagni

    • Clement V (1305 – 1314)

  • The Papacy at Avignon (1305 – 1377)

    • Stay at Avignon leads to a decline in papal prestige

    • Captives of the French monarchy

    • New sources of revenue

    • Catherine of Siena (c. 1347 – 1380)


Bridge at avignon the city of the popes

Bridge at Avignon – The City of the Popes


The great schism

The Great Schism

  • Papacy returns to Rome in 1378

  • Rival popes elected

    • Pope Urban VI

    • Pope Clement VII

  • The Great Schism divides Europe

  • Calls for systematic reform

    • Marsiglio of Padua (c. 1270 – 1342), Defender of the Peace

  • Conciliarism

    • Council of Pisa (1409)

      • Deposed both popes and elected a new pope

      • Popes refuse to step down

      • Results in three popes

    • Council of Constance (1414 – 1418)

    • End of the Schism

    • Pope Martin V (1417 – 1431)


Popular religion

Popular Religion

Trends

  • Mechanical paths to salvation

    Mysticism and Lay Piety

  • Meister Eckhart (1260 – 1327)

  • Modern Devotion

    • Gerard Groote (1340 – 1384) and the Brothers of the Common Life

      Unique Female Mystical Exp.


Changes in theology

Changes in Theology

  • Challenges to Scholastic Thought

  • William of Occam (1285 – 1329)

    • Nominalism

    • Consequences of William’s ideas


Development of vernacular literature

Development of Vernacular Literature

  • Dante (1265 – 1321) :The Divine Comedy

  • Petrarch (1304 – 1374): Sonnets

  • Boccaccio (1313 – 1375): Decameron

  • Chaucer (c. 1340 – 1400)

    • The Canterbury Tales

  • Christine de Pizan (c. 1364 – 1430)

    • The Book of the City of Ladies


New directions in art

New Directions in Art

  • Art and the Black Death

    • Giotto (1266 – 1337)

    • Morbidity of late fourteenth-century art


Giotto lamentation

Giotto, Lamentation


Change invention

Change & Invention

  • Changes in Urban Life

    • Greater Regulation

    • Marriage

    • Gender Roles

      • Male: active and domineering

      • Women: passive and submissive

    • Medieval children


New directions in medicine

New Directions in Medicine

  • New Directions in Medicine

    • Hierarchy

    • Trends

  • Inventions and New Patterns

    • The mechanical clock

      • New conception of time

    • Gunpowder and cannon


A medical textbook

A Medical Textbook


Mechanical clock in the prague town hall

Mechanical Clock in the Prague Town Hall


Discussion questions

Discussion Questions

  • What impact did the Black Death have on medieval European society?

  • What were the causes of the Hundred Years’ War?

  • Who was Joan of Arc and what role did she play in the Hundred Years’ War?

  • How did the Hundred Years’ War impact the relations between the English King and his Parliament?

  • Why did the stay at Avignon lead to a decline in papal prestige?

  • How was the Great Schism finally ended?

  • How did Dante, Chaucer and Christine de Pisan reflect the values of their respective societies?

  • How did the Black Death affect urban and family life?


Web links

Web Links

  • ORB – Online Reference Book for Medieval Studies

  • The End of Europe’s Middle Ages

  • The Black Death, 1347 – 1350

  • Medieval Dance of Death

  • De Re Militari – Society for Medieval Military History

  • The Age of King Charles V

  • The World of Dante

  • Geoffrey Chaucer