1 / 30
Chapter 11. The Late Middle Ages: Crisis and Disintegration in the Fourteenth Century. Timeline. A Time of Troubles: Black Death and Social Crisis. “Little Ice Age” Small drop in average temperatures Famine Heavy rain (1315 – 1317) led to food shortages
Presentation posted in :
An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation
Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other sites. SlideServe reserves the right to change this policy at anytime.
While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
The Late Middle Ages:
Crisis and Disintegration in the Fourteenth Century
A Time of Troubles: Black Death and Social Crisis “Little Ice Age” Small drop in average temperatures Famine Heavy rain (1315 – 1317) led to food shortages Population growth up to 1300 put pressure on food supply The Black Death Most devastating natural disaster in European History Bubonic Plague Rats and Fleas Yersinia Pestis Spread of the Plague Originated in Asia Arrived in Europe in 1347 Mortality reached 50 – 60 percent in some areas Wiped out between 25 – 50 percent of European population (19 – 38 million dead in four years) Plague returns in 1361 – 1362 and 1369 Map 11.1: Spread of the Black Death Life and Death: Reactions to the Plague Plague as a punishment from God The flagellants Attacks against Jews Violence Economic Dislocation and Social Upheaval Labor Shortage + Falling prices for agricultural products = Drop in aristocratic incomes Statute of Laborers (1351) sought to limit wages Social Mobility Peasant Revolts Jacquerie in France (1358) English Peasants’ Revolt (1381) Revolts in the Cities Ciompi Revolt in Florence (1378) Chart 11.1: Background to the Hundred Years’ War: Kings of France and England The Hundred Years’ War Causes Entanglement of French and English royal families King Edward III (1327 – 1377) claims French crown French seize duchy of Gascony (1337) sparking war Conduct and Course of the War Differences in the armies Battle of Crecy (1346) Henry V (1413 – 1422) Battle of Agincourt (1415) Charles the Dauphin (heir to the French throne) Joan of Arc (1412 – 1431) Siege of Orleans Captured by allies of the English in 1430 Burned at the stake (1431) Gunpowder War ends with French victory (1453) Map 11.2: The Hundred Years’ War Political Instability Breakdown of Feudal Institutions New Royal Dynasties Financial Problems The Growth of England’s Political Institutions Edward III (1327 – 1377) Parliament House of Lords House of Commons Richard II (1377 – 1399) Aristocratic factionalism Henry IV (1399 – 1413) The Problems of the French Kings Weakness of the French Monarchy Estates-General Charles VI (1380 – 1422) Competition between the dukes of Burgundy and Orléans to control Charles Germany & Italy The German Monarchy Breakup of the Holy Roman Empire Hundreds of States Elective Monarchy The Golden Bull (1356) Weak kings The States of Italy The States of Italy Lack of centralized authority Republicanism to Tyranny Development of regional states The Ponte Vecchio – Venice The Decline of the Church Boniface VIII and the Conflict with the State Boniface VIII (1294 – 1303) Conflict with Philip the Fair of France Unam Sanctam (1302) Captured by French at Anagni Clement V (1305 – 1314) The Papacy at Avignon (1305 – 1377) Stay at Avignon leads to a decline in papal prestige Captives of the French monarchy New sources of revenue Catherine of Siena (c. 1347 – 1380) Bridge at Avignon – The City of the Popes The Great Schism Papacy returns to Rome in 1378 Rival popes elected Pope Urban VI Pope Clement VII The Great Schism divides Europe Calls for systematic reform Marsiglio of Padua (c. 1270 – 1342), Defender of the Peace Conciliarism Council of Pisa (1409) Deposed both popes and elected a new pope Popes refuse to step down Results in three popes Council of Constance (1414 – 1418) End of the Schism Pope Martin V (1417 – 1431) Popular Religion
Mechanical paths to salvation
Mysticism and Lay Piety
Meister Eckhart (1260 – 1327) Modern Devotion Changes in Theology Challenges to Scholastic Thought William of Occam (1285 – 1329) Nominalism Consequences of William’s ideas Development of Vernacular Literature Dante (1265 – 1321) :The Divine Comedy Petrarch (1304 – 1374): Sonnets Boccaccio (1313 – 1375): Decameron Chaucer (c. 1340 – 1400) Christine de Pizan (c. 1364 – 1430) The Book of the City of Ladies New Directions in Art Art and the Black Death Giotto (1266 – 1337) Morbidity of late fourteenth-century art Change & Invention Changes in Urban Life Greater Regulation Marriage Gender Roles Male: active and domineering Women: passive and submissive Medieval children New Directions in Medicine New Directions in Medicine Inventions and New Patterns The mechanical clock Gunpowder and cannon Mechanical Clock in the Prague Town Hall Discussion Questions What impact did the Black Death have on medieval European society? What were the causes of the Hundred Years’ War? Who was Joan of Arc and what role did she play in the Hundred Years’ War? How did the Hundred Years’ War impact the relations between the English King and his Parliament? Why did the stay at Avignon lead to a decline in papal prestige? How was the Great Schism finally ended? How did Dante, Chaucer and Christine de Pisan reflect the values of their respective societies? How did the Black Death affect urban and family life? Web Links ORB – Online Reference Book for Medieval Studies The End of Europe’s Middle Ages The Black Death, 1347 – 1350 Medieval Dance of Death De Re Militari – Society for Medieval Military History The Age of King Charles V The World of Dante Geoffrey Chaucer