Reducing overrepresentation in child welfare and juvenile justice systems
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Reducing Overrepresentation in Child Welfare and Juvenile Justice Systems. Brad Richardson; Ph.D., Julia Rembert, MSW; DMC Resource Center University of Iowa School of Social Work, Nat’l Resource Ctr. for Family Centered Practice Iowa City, IA Pat Penning, LMSW and Terri DeVos

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Reducing Overrepresentation in Child Welfare and Juvenile Justice Systems

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Reducing overrepresentation in child welfare and juvenile justice systems

Reducing Overrepresentation in Child Welfare and Juvenile Justice Systems

Brad Richardson; Ph.D., Julia Rembert, MSW;

DMC Resource Center

University of Iowa School of Social Work,

Nat’l Resource Ctr. for Family Centered Practice

Iowa City, IA

Pat Penning, LMSW and Terri DeVos

Iowa Department of Human Services – Woodbury County

Sioux City, IA


The national resource center for family centered practice

The National Resource Center for Family Centered Practice

  • Established in 1977 as a national consulting division of the University of Iowa School of Social Work

  • Research, Evaluation, Technical Assistance, Training & Organizational Development

  • NRC specializes in research-supported, strength-based culturally competent family centered practice; “Dr. Outcomes”

  • Family Development Specialist Certification Program


National resource center for family centered practice

National Resource Center for Family Centered Practice

About NRCFCP | Training | Research/Evaluation | Tech.Assistance | Pubs

Fam.Dev.Spec.Cert | Cult.Comp.| DMC Resource Center | Latino Institute|

Website: www.uiowa.edu/~nrcfcp

“Ask Dr. Outcomes”


Dmc resource center

DMC Resource Center

  • Education & Information

  • Technical Assistance

  • Research and Evaluation

  • Annual Conference

  • Minority Youth and Families Initiative (MYFI)


Sag creates dmc committee and dmc resource center

SAG Creates DMC Committeeand DMC Resource Center


Jumping the gap

Jumping the Gap

  • Research and books

  • Training

  • Meetings

  • Pilot projects

  • Test protocols

  • Families getting what they need, when they need it

    • Flexible access to community resources

    • Systems Change

  • Fear

  • Defensiveness

  • Hidden assumptions

  • Formal structures

  • Tyranny of habit

Adapted from John Franz, Sr. Juvenile Justice Advisor, Nat’l Resource Network


Reducing overrepresentation in child welfare and juvenile justice systems

[1] Population data from Iowa’s KIDS COUNT, Annie E. Casey Foundation.

[2] Detention data from Iowa DHR, CJJP.


Dmc myfi intensive ta sites

DMC & MYFI Intensive TA Sites


Reducing overrepresentation in child welfare and juvenile justice systems

DMCRC Technical Assistance Sites

Lyon

Emmet

Osceola

Dickin-son

Howard

Kossuth

Mitchell

Worth

Winnebago

Winneshiek

Allamakee

Clay

Palo Alto

Hancock

Sioux

O’Brien

Cerro Gordo

Floyd

Chickasaw

Clayton

Fayette

Plymouth

Cherokee

Humboldt

Wright

Franklin

Butler

Bremer

Pocahontas

Buena

Vista

Webster

Woodbury

Black

Hawk

Buchanan

Delaware

Dubuque

Ida

Sac

Calhoun

Grundy

Hardin

Hamilton

Jones

Benton

Jackson

Tama

Linn

Monona

Crawford

Greene

Marshall

Carroll

Boone

Story

Clinton

Cedar

Audubon

Johnson

Iowa

Shelby

Dallas

Guthrie

Jasper

Harrison

Polk

Poweshiek

Scott

Muscatine

Adair

Keokuk

Madison

Marion

Cass

Mahaska

Pottawattamie

Warren

Washington

Louisa

Lucas

Monroe

Clarke

Wapello

Mills

Union

Montgomery

Adams

Henry

Jefferson

Des Moines

Fremont

Page

Van Buren

Taylor

Wayne

Ringgold

Davis

Decatur

Appa-noose

Lee

National Resource Center for Family Centered Practice


Dmc in iowa 2003

DMC in Iowa (2003)

National Resource Center for Family Centered Practice


Dmc in iowa 2005

DMC in Iowa (2005)

National Resource Center for Family Centered Practice


Reducing overrepresentation in child welfare and juvenile justice systems

National Resource Center for Family Centered Practice


Iowa relative rate indices

Iowa Relative Rate Indices

National Resource Center for Family Centered Practice


Reducing overrepresentation in child welfare and juvenile justice systems

National Resource Center for Family Centered Practice


Reducing overrepresentation in child welfare and juvenile justice systems

“ We stopped looking at what was wrong with the kids and trying to fix them. Instead, we looked at ourselves and tried to fix the system. The result was a better use of resources, better behavior by the kids and reductions in racial and ethnic disparities.”Scott MacDonald,Director of Juvenile Probation, Santa Cruz, CA from No Turning Back, 2005

National Resource Center for Family Centered Practice


Reducing overrepresentation in child welfare and juvenile justice systems

  • Focus on a decision point

  • Focus on Reducing Racial Disparities

  • Employ Risk Assessment Instrument

  • Create Placement Alternatives

  • Gain Judicial Support

  • Enlist a Community Champion

  • Gain Community Engagement and Involvement

  • Use Outcome Indicators

National Resource Center for Family Centered Practice


Reducing overrepresentation in child welfare and juvenile justice systems

Resource Materials to Consider …Resources & Publications:Providing Effective DMC Technical Assistance:A Strength-Based Community Practice ApproachA Strength- Based Culturally Competent Approach to Reducing D.M.C.www.uiowa.edu/~nrcfcp

National Resource Center for Family Centered Practice


Strategies for reducing disparities in the juvenile justice system

Strategies for Reducing Disparities in the Juvenile Justice System

Ashley Nellis (2005). Seven Steps to Reducing DMC , 2005.

  • Step One: Define the Problem

  • Step Two: Implement Evidence-Based Programming

  • Step Three: Develop Program Logic

  • Step Four: Identify Measures

  • Step Five: Collect and Analyze Data

  • Step Six: Report Findings

  • Step Seven: Reassess Program Logic

National Resource Center for Family Centered Practice


Publications on reducing dmc

…Publications on Reducing DMC

  • Guidebook for Integration and Coordination of Child Welfare and Juvenile Justice Systems (Wiig & Tuell 2005). CHILD WELFARE LEAGUE OF AMERICA

  • Disproportionate Minority Contact in the Juvenile Justice System CHILD WELFARE LEAGUE OF AMERICA

National Resource Center for Family Centered Practice


Publications on reducing dmc1

…Publications on Reducing DMC

  • No Turning Back : Promising Approaches to Reducing Racial and Ethnic Disparities Affecting Youth of Color in the Justice System; A Project of the Building Blocks for Youth Initiative, October 2005

  • Seven Steps to Develop and Evaluate Strategies to Reduce Disproportionate Minority Contact (DMC) Juvenile Justice Evaluation Center Guidebook Series

    Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention Juvenile Justice Evaluation Center Justice Research and Statistics Association

National Resource Center for Family Centered Practice


All levels must pay attention to program capacity

All levels must pay attention to program capacity


Motivation or who should care

Motivation…orwho should care?

Concept from Cornel West, 2000


Reducing overrepresentation in child welfare and juvenile justice systems

Community Collaborative Efforts to Reduce Disproportionality in Child Welfare:The Experience in Woodbury County

Julia Rembert, MSW

University of Iowa School of Social Work

and Minority Youth and Families Initiative,

DMC Resource Center

Pat Penning, LMSW & Terri DeVos

Iowa Department of Human Services, Woodbury County

Sioux City, IA

National Resource Center for Family Centered Practice


Reducing overrepresentation in child welfare and juvenile justice systems

National Resource Center for Family Centered Practice


Tribal affilations december 2005

Cherokee4

Crow Creek2

Macy8

Mille Lacs2

Oglala Sioux5

Omaha20

Ponca7

Rosebud Sioux8

Santee25

Sisseton3

Turtle Mt/Chippewa1

Yankton Sioux2

Northern Cheyenne3

Winnebago22

Tanana Chief/Alaska2

Tribal Affilations: December 2005

National Resource Center for Family Centered Practice


Woodbury county sioux city iowa

Woodbury County (Sioux City) Iowa

  • Native Americans make up 0.4% of the population

  • Native American children make up 2.2% of the foster care population

  • History of community activism highlighting need for system change.

    • Recover Our Children

    • Community Initiative for Native Families and Children (CINCF)

      - Passage of Iowa ICWA - 2005

National Resource Center for Family Centered Practice


Planning considerations

Planning built on relationships with the Community Initiative for Native Children and Families

Targeted interventions that would be:

Visible

Effective

Could continue without additional funds

(integrated into practice, systems change)

Planning Considerations

National Resource Center for Family Centered Practice


Planning process

Planning Process

National Resource Center for Family Centered Practice


Underlying issues

Underlying Issues

  • Communication gap between NA community and DHS/courts

  • Lack of trust between families and system

  • Relationship issues between DHS and Native community

    • Trust – lack of confidence in tribes/system

    • Anger

Broken Trust by Stanley Wanlass

National Resource Center for Family Centered Practice


2004 2005 problem statement

2004-2005 Problem Statement

Native American children (0-18), as self-identified, are overrepresented within Woodbury County’s foster care system, resulting in a loss of:

  • Culture

  • Self-awareness

  • Identity, and

  • Tribal and family relationships

    This is happening because of:

  • Shortage of Native foster homes for children in crisis, and policies that present barriers to relative placement.

  • Lack of culturally competent providers in the community.

Graphic from the Nawash Native child welfare program for the Neyaashiinigmiing Community

National Resource Center for Family Centered Practice


2004 2005 goal statement

Increases in:

Relative placements, even if Termination of Parental Rights has occurred,

Reunification with parents,

Increase of Native American foster homes

Decreases in:

Termination of Parental Rights

Reabuse/neglect rates

Entry into the foster care system

Abuse/neglect rates overall

Number of placements for Native children

2004-2005 Goal Statement

Native American children are safely raised in the Native community as evidenced by:

National Resource Center for Family Centered Practice


2004 2005 areas of primary focus

2004-2005 Areas of Primary Focus

  • Culturally competent services being provided,

  • Increased numbers of Native children placed in Native foster homes, and

  • Increase of Native children placed with relatives.

- Photo by National Geographic

National Resource Center for Family Centered Practice


New ways of doing business the snap team

New Ways of Doing Business: The SNAP* Team

*Specialized Native American Project Team

  • Native family liaison

  • Native tribal liaison

  • Supervisor

  • Social workers

  • CPS workers

  • Adoptions worker

National Resource Center for Family Centered Practice


Parameters within which snap must work

Parameters Within Which SNAP Must Work

  • Number of referrals

    • Cannot control number of concerns that are phoned in to IDHS

  • Iowa Child Welfare Redesign

    • Assigns level of risk and service provision in part on numbers and age(s) of children in the family.

    • Repeat assessments within 18 months result in automatic system involvement – at a higher level

National Resource Center for Family Centered Practice


Parameters within which snap must work1

Parameters Within Which SNAP Must Work

  • Police mandated to remove children to licensed foster home.

  • County Attorneys choose to file Child in Need of Assistance (CINA) and Termination of Parental Rights (TPR) petitions independently of IDHS.

  • There are cases where Tribes choose not to pursue transfer – in the best interests of the child and family.

National Resource Center for Family Centered Practice


How snap is different

How SNAP is different

  • Works with all children in manner upholding ICWA principles – regardless of ICWA status

  • Lower caseloads: allow workers to know their families better

State of Washington Manual

National Resource Center for Family Centered Practice


Reducing overrepresentation in child welfare and juvenile justice systems

“I feel like I get to do real social work again . . . I KNOW the families that I’m working with now.”

SNAP Social Worker

Image from Canku Oto newsletter: http://www.turtletrack.org/

National Resource Center for Family Centered Practice


How snap is different1

How SNAP is different

  • Values culturally competent practice

    • Training for workers and area providers:

      • NICWA’s Conference

      • Wellbriety

      • Fatherhood is Sacred Program (Ho-Chunk Nation)

    • Training sponsored/organized by IDHS

      • Beyond the Addiction: A Community Uprising

      • Indian Child Welfare Act 25 Years Later

      • Iowa ICWA in-service by one of the authors of Iowa ICWA

National Resource Center for Family Centered Practice


Culturally competent practice beliefs

Culturally Competent Practice Beliefs

  • Families are diverse and have the right to be respected for their special ethnic, cultural, religious and other traditions

  • Practice and services are delivered in a manner that strengthens the family’s identity

  • Child-rearing patterns are influenced by cultural norms and mores

  • Every culture has positive attributes as well as challenges

National Resource Center for Family Centered Practice


How snap is different2

How SNAP is different

  • Works as a cohesive team

National Resource Center for Family Centered Practice


Reducing overrepresentation in child welfare and juvenile justice systems

Dear Team Members:

    I . . . sincerely thank you all for all of your hard work yesterday.  Your willingness to assist me in finding a foster placement for my teen mom was greatly appreciated.

    I had a former co-worker once tell me, on the eve of his retirement, that he never would remember the policy changes, the endless paperwork, or the grueling days in court.  He told me that he would remember the people he worked with.  He told me that the time spent with his co-workers . . . would be the memories he would take with him.     Working with our team, I completely understand what he means . . .

National Resource Center for Family Centered Practice


Reducing overrepresentation in child welfare and juvenile justice systems

Yesterday, you all came together to help me solve a big problem. And, because of your assistance, WE were able to keep a family together. For that, I can not thank you enough.  The girl that you helped has been through a lot more than any normal person of eighty should experience, let alone a young woman of seventeen.  The young mom, asked me to thank you all for finding a foster home for her.

Finally, when I talked with (Native foster care mother) tonight, she reported that she would be perfectly happy to work only with the Native American Team

National Resource Center for Family Centered Practice


Reducing overrepresentation in child welfare and juvenile justice systems

as we have always been very responsive to her.  She knew that if she had a problem with a kiddo, and the regular worker was unavailable, that other members of the team would step up and help out.  She had talked with other foster parents who expressed similar sentiments.

I know that a "touchy, feely" email is somewhat unusual coming from me, but I wanted to make sure that everyone knew how appreciative I was of all of you, and how positively our work is viewed by people in our community.

Thanks for all that you do!

National Resource Center for Family Centered Practice


Reducing overrepresentation in child welfare and juvenile justice systems

New Ways of Doing Business: Emphasizing Relative/Community Networks

  • Understanding lineage and descent – from the beginning of the case

National Resource Center for Family Centered Practice


Importance of geneology

Importance of Geneology . . .

  • New standard forms to identify tribal history and descent

    • Enrollment

    • Access to other services

    • Understanding who’s “in the family”

    • Use in court

www.redheadedartist.com

National Resource Center for Family Centered Practice


New ways of doing business emphasizing relative community networks

New Ways of Doing Business: Emphasizing Relative/Community Networks

  • Using Family Team Meetings

    • Understanding family members’ support roles

    • More client-focused

    • Allows for more culturally competent planning

Family Team Meeting Use - December 2005

Used technology – 45Refused meetings - 29

Pending meetings – 6Not applicable - 14

National Resource Center for Family Centered Practice


New ways of doing business emphasizing relative community networks1

New Ways of Doing Business: Emphasizing Relative/Community Networks

  • Knowing who to call in the community

  • Flexible resource dollar pool

  • Reconsidering family members as placement options, when they might have been ruled out before.

National Resource Center for Family Centered Practice


Reducing overrepresentation in child welfare and juvenile justice systems

Our only security is our ability to change.  ~John Lilly

National Resource Center for Family Centered Practice


New ways of doing business increasing native culturally competent foster homes

New Ways of Doing Business: Increasing Native/Culturally Competent Foster Homes

  • Recruiting at events of interest to Native Americans

    • Pow Wows

      • Winnebago

      • Ponca

    • Land meeting

      • Minnesota Mdewakanton Dakota Oyate 1886 Census Descendants

Photo by Winnebago Tribe of Nebraska

National Resource Center for Family Centered Practice


New ways of doing business increasing native culturally competent foster homes1

New Ways of Doing Business: Increasing Native/Culturally Competent Foster Homes

  • Holding licensing workshops at times and places that work better for Native people

  • Offering assistance in the process

National Resource Center for Family Centered Practice


New ways of doing business increasing native culturally competent foster homes2

New Ways of Doing Business: Increasing Native/Culturally Competent Foster Homes

  • Making the rules culturally competent

    • Foster care licensing standards:

      • space

      • prior history

    • Creating a real process, not just a “quiet exception to the rules”

National Resource Center for Family Centered Practice


New ways of doing business increasing native culturally competent foster homes3

New Ways of Doing Business: Increasing Native/Culturally Competent Foster Homes

  • Helping non-Native foster homes to become more culturally competent

    • Continuing education requirements

    • Cultural activities for people who have adopted Native children

National Resource Center for Family Centered Practice


Reducing overrepresentation in child welfare and juvenile justice systems

Example of Hide Painting by Frank Shortey

Kevin Locke,

Hoopdancer

Ponca State Park, Nebraska

Types of books distributed to children

National Resource Center for Family Centered Practice


Evaluation strategy new cases 1 1 2005 and on

Evaluation Strategy: New cases 1/1/2005 and on . . .

  • North Carolina Family Assessment Scale (NCFAS)

  • Colorado Family Risk Assessment and Reassessment (CFRA and CFRR)

  • Treatment Activity Reporting Form

  • Qualitative Methods

    • Interviewing members of Native Team

    • Attending Community Initiative for Native Children and Families meetings

    • Attending Native Unit meetings

National Resource Center for Family Centered Practice


Ncfas

NCFAS

  • Designed to assess family functioning on 6 domains:

    • Environment

    • Parental capabilities

    • Family interactions

    • Family safety, and

    • Child well-being

  • Completed within 30 days and at end of project year period

National Resource Center for Family Centered Practice


Ncfas results

2

ENV_I

-0.18

0.82

ENV_C

0

-1.27

PAR_I

-2

PAR_C

-3.31

-4

-4.27

FAMINT_I

-4.31

FAMINT_C

-5.45

-6

FAMSAF_I

-7.38

-8

FAMSAF_C

-8.08

-10

CHILDWB_I

-10.23

CHILDWB_C

-12

NCFAS Results

+2 = clear strength

+1 = mild strength

0 = baseline/

Adequate

-1 = mild problem

-2 = moderate problem

-3 = serious problem.

National Resource Center for Family Centered Practice


Cfra and cfrr

CFRA and CFRR

CFRA comprises two domains:

  • Neglect (11 items) and abuse (10 items)

  • Scores in three categories of risk

    • low (< 2), moderate (3 -7), high (8 +).

  • Completed on case opening

    CFRR

  • Completed every 6 months following CFRA and at case closure

National Resource Center for Family Centered Practice


Cfra and cfrr1

CFRA and CFRR

  • 24 Family Assessments

  • CFRA:

  • 1 Low risk

  • 9 Moderate risk

  • 13 High risk

  • CFRR:

  • 9 Low risk

  • 6 Moderate risk

  • 8 High risk

National Resource Center for Family Centered Practice


Current and future challenges justice system response

Current and Future Challenges: Justice System Response

  • Perception that IA DHS has “abandoned” children by partnering with tribes and Native people

National Resource Center for Family Centered Practice


Systems change response from legal system

Systems Change – Response from Legal System

  • Increase in filing of Child in Need of Assistance (CINA) petitions

  • But, decrease in Termination of Parental Rights (TPR)

    • Coordination between Tribes and workers

    • Other plans in place

National Resource Center for Family Centered Practice


Current and future challenges working in an urban multi tribal environment

Current and Future Challenges: Working in an urban, multi-tribal environment

  • Knowing who to work with, when

  • Continued reconciliation work between families who have lost their children to the system

    &

    Workers who want to do things in better ways

National Resource Center for Family Centered Practice


Current and future challenges better measuring of change

Current and Future Challenges: Better Measuring of Change

  • Measuring what is meaningful to the Native Community

  • Understanding impact of prevention efforts and transferal of children to Tribes

  • Understanding limitations of current IDHS data collection system vs. what we need to know

National Resource Center for Family Centered Practice


New measurement strategies

New Measurement Strategies

  • Database Management

    • In-house, SNAP-monitored data collection

  • Qualitative work - Interviews with:

    • Families served by IDHS

    • Providers working with IDHS

  • Network Analysis – Where are the connections?

    • Mapping

    • Changes in interaction between agencies

National Resource Center for Family Centered Practice


Sociogram of collaboration to reduce dmc

Sociogram of Collaboration to Reduce DMC


Initial baseline assessment of collaboration to reduce dmc

Initial (Baseline) Assessment of Collaboration to Reduce DMC


Follow up assessment of collaboration to reduce dmc

Follow-up Assessment of Collaboration to Reduce DMC


New measurement strategies1

New Measurement Strategies

  • Database Management

    • In-house, SNAP-monitored data collection

National Resource Center for Family Centered Practice


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