?. LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS CARRIER (LNG). What is LNG ?. Lique Natural Gas. fied. O. Natural Gas. Natural Gas. At Minus 260 Fahrenheit (-162 C). O. Reduces to 1/600 of its original volume. Vessel insulation is crucial !. Membrane type LNG carrier tank layers of insulation.
LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS CARRIER (LNG)
Lique Natural Gas
At Minus 260 Fahrenheit (-162 C)
Reduces to 1/600 of its original volume
Vessel insulation is crucial !
Membrane type LNG carrier tank layers of insulation
Then 4 layers
The membrane is where there
have been “gluing” problems
Known reserves at 1 Jan 2011
There are 2 methods for transporting the gas
….or a combination of both…
…. by pipeline …
….or by sea…
..and the ships get bigger and bigger
PRISMATIC (Q - Max) TYPE
Tanks fully incorporated into the ship’s hull
Tanks independent of the ship’s hull
Natural gas is cryogenically liquefied into LNG on-shore
Transferred from shore to vessel
1) Directly at the terminal
2) Offshore at a buoy mooring
On board, LNG kept at boiling point (-162°C) to deliberately allow some “boil off”
Discharging is done EITHER :-
as LNG using cryogenic hoses (as with loading)
….. or by allowing LNG to vaporise on board (and then pumping as a gas)
Liquefied Petroleum Gas
The greater the % of propane in the LPG, the more pressurized (or lower temperature) it needs to be, to remain liquefied
% of butane in the LPQ
Pounds per square inch pressure
Semi-pressurized, semi-refrigerated ships have a cargo carrying capacity of 5,000 cubic metres under temperature and pressure condition of -10 degree Centigrade and 8.5 kg/ cm2 respectively.
Larger vessels can carry at temperature of -48 degree Centigrade.
As the boiling point of LPG is much higher than LNG, a re-liquefaction plant on the ship can load the cargo as gas and liquefy it onboard. Heating and cooling facilities are also provided for smooth discharging of the cargo
LNG CARRIER INSURANCE ISSUES
Current cost to build between $180,000,000 - $290,000,000
“Sloshing” Damage Claims
Containment Systems Claims
Has led to
Insulation adhesive weakness claims
The only yards with repair capability…….
……are too busy building new ones !
Just one of 10 vessel types covered by Steve Harris during the Marsh Marine Insurance Weeks
For more information or a brochure, contact
Marion J. Paul, Marsh Norwich U.K.
Tel: + Intl 44 (0)1603 207098
E-mail: [email protected]