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LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS CARRIER (LNG) PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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?. LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS CARRIER (LNG). What is LNG ?. Lique Natural Gas. fied. O. Natural Gas. Natural Gas. At Minus 260 Fahrenheit (-162 C). O. Reduces to 1/600 of its original volume. Vessel insulation is crucial !. Membrane type LNG carrier tank layers of insulation.

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LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS CARRIER (LNG)

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?

LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS CARRIER (LNG)


What is lng l.jpg

What is LNG ?

Lique Natural Gas

fied

O

Natural Gas

Natural Gas

At Minus 260 Fahrenheit (-162 C)

O

Reduces to 1/600 of its original volume

Vessel insulation is crucial !


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Membrane type LNG carrier tank layers of insulation

Then 4 layers

of insulation

BALLAST

WATER

The membrane is where there

have been “gluing” problems

OUTER

HULL

INNER

HULL

1.8 metres

(6 feet)

2nd layer

Insulation

2nd

Membrane

1st

Membrane

1st layer

Insulation


So where are all the reserves of natural gas then l.jpg

So where are all the reserves of natural gas then ?

Known reserves at 1 Jan 2011

Source: http://www.aneki.com/countries2.php?t=Countries_with_the_Largest_Natural_Gas_Reserves&table=fb167&places=*=*&order=desc&orderby=fb167.value&decimals=--&dependency=independent&number=all&cntdn=asc&r=-67-68-69-70-71-72-73-74-76&c=&measures=Country--proven%20reserves%20of%20gas%20%28cu%20m%29&units=--&file=gas


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There are 2 methods for transporting the gas

….or a combination of both…

…. by pipeline …

….or by sea…


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..and the ships get bigger and bigger

MEMBRANE TYPE

PRISMATIC (Q - Max) TYPE

MOSS-ROSENBURG TYPE

Tanks fully incorporated into the ship’s hull

Tanks independent of the ship’s hull


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Loading, carriage and discharging LNG carriers

Cryogenic hose

Natural gas is cryogenically liquefied into LNG on-shore

Transferred from shore to vessel

LNG

PLANT

1) Directly at the terminal

2) Offshore at a buoy mooring

On board, LNG kept at boiling point (-162°C) to deliberately allow some “boil off”

Discharging is done EITHER :-

as LNG using cryogenic hoses (as with loading)

“Boil off”

TEMPERATURE

….. or by allowing LNG to vaporise on board (and then pumping as a gas)

Heat

Heat

STORAGE TANK


What is l g l.jpg

What is L G ?

P

Liquefied Petroleum Gas

Liquefies at

Odour added

Propane (C3H8)

-42 ºC

Ethanethiol (CH3CH2SH)

Butane (C4H10)

-0.5 ºC

The greater the % of propane in the LPG, the more pressurized (or lower temperature) it needs to be, to remain liquefied

% of butane in the LPQ

Pounds per square inch pressure

required

Temperature (C)

Source: http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com


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Carriage of LPG

Semi-pressurized, semi-refrigerated ships have a cargo carrying capacity of 5,000 cubic metres under temperature and pressure condition of -10 degree Centigrade and 8.5 kg/ cm2 respectively.

Larger vessels can carry at temperature of -48 degree Centigrade.

As the boiling point of LPG is much higher than LNG, a re-liquefaction plant on the ship can load the cargo as gas and liquefy it onboard. Heating and cooling facilities are also provided for smooth discharging of the cargo


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LNG CARRIER INSURANCE ISSUES

Current cost to build between $180,000,000 - $290,000,000

(152,000 cu.m.)

(270,000 cu.m.)

BILL

$22,000,000 +

“Sloshing” Damage Claims

BILL

$35,000,000 +

Containment Systems Claims

Has led to

Total Loss

Insulation adhesive weakness claims

The only yards with repair capability…….

……are too busy building new ones !


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L.N.G. Carriers

Just one of 10 vessel types covered by Steve Harris during the Marsh Marine Insurance Weeks

For more information or a brochure, contact

Marion J. Paul, Marsh Norwich U.K.

Tel: + Intl 44 (0)1603 207098

E-mail: [email protected]


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