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Contents

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- Section 1—Introduction to Plumbing
- Section 2—Plumbing Systems
- Section 3—Plumbing System Design and Installation
- Section 4—Plumbing Services
- Section 5—Career Development and Plumbing History

Introduction to Plumbing

Mathematics for Plumbers

- Read a rule accurately to nearest 1/16.
- Add and subtract fractions and whole numbers.
- Compute pipe offsets using the Pythagorean theorem and trigonometric functions.
- Apply the formulas for finding area and volume.
- Explain and apply SI metric measure in finding length, area, volume, and temperature.
- Convert customary measure to metric measure.

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Reading Fractions of an Inch

- Read from nearest 1/4 divisions to get precise reading.

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Adding Lengths

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Subtracting Lengths

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Subtracting Unequal Denominators

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Borrowing from the Whole Number

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Multiply the dimension given in feet by 12 to get the number of inches.

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Identify each measurement indicated.

- 5 1/2

- A.
- B.
- C.
- D.
- E.

- 4 9/16

- 3 13/16

- 3 1/16

- 1 11/16

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Add the following dimensions:

A. 6 5/8 + 1 3/4 =

B. 3 3/16 + 4 3/4 =

C. 2 8 3/8 + 4 6 15/16 =

D. 5 4 13/16 + 9 5/8 =

- 8 3/8

7 15/16

7 3 5/16

6 2 7/16

Subtract the following dimensions:

A. 9 3/4 – 3 3/8 =

B. 1 2 1/4 – 8 1/8 =

C. 12 6 3/4 – 7 4 7/8 =

D. 6 9 11/16 – 3 10 13/16 =

6 3/8

6 1/8

5 1 7/8

2 10 7/8

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Pythagorean Theorem

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Pythagorean Theorem (continued)

- Pythagorean theorem applies to all right triangles.

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Trigonometric Functions

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Trigonometric Functions (continued)

- Theoretical Length vs. Actual Length

Actual length of pipe = Theoretical length –Laying lengthof fittings

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Simple Methods

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Plumber’s Rule

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- Find the travel of the pipe required to join two pipes at a 45 angle that are offset at each of the following distances:
- A. 30 =
- B. 18 =
- C. 1 3 =
- D. 2 9 =

42.42 or 4 7/16

25.45 or 25 7/16

22.21 or 22 1/4

46.66 or 46 11/16

Square or Rectangular Surface

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Area of Circles

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Volume of a Rectangular Tank

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Volume of a Cylindrical Tank

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- Compute the area of the following:
- A. 6 6 square =
- B. 4 9 12 3 rectangle =
- C. 8 6 diameter circle =
- D. 4 9 radius circle =

42.25 sq. ft.

58.19 sq. ft.

2,289 sq. in.

10,202 sq. in.

Compute the volume of these tanks:

A.B.

615.44 cu. ft.

63 cu. ft.

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Length

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Dry Volume

Liquid Measures

Temperature

- Identify the metric units of measurement used when measuring:
- A. Distance:
- B. Liquid volume:
- C. Dry volume:
- D. Temperature:

meter, centimeter, millimeter

liter or cubic centimeter

cubic meter

Celsius or Kelvin

- Convert each of the following customary measurements to the equivalent metric measurement.
- A. Distance: 1 3
- B. Liquid measure: 22 cu. ft.
- C. Dry volume: 135 cu. ft.
- D. Temperature: 85 F

68.44 cm.

623.04 L

3.77 cu. meters

29.7 Celsius