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Russia’s Approach to Transatlantic Relations. Natalia Zaslavskaya, Ph. D. European Studies Department School of International Relations Saint-Petersburg State University. Russia and Transatlantic Relations. Transatlantic Relations? Russia and NATO Russia and the United States.

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russia s approach to transatlantic relations

Russia’s Approach to Transatlantic Relations

Natalia Zaslavskaya, Ph. D.

European Studies Department

School of International Relations

Saint-Petersburg State University

russia and transatlantic relations
Russia and Transatlantic Relations

Transatlantic Relations?

  • Russia and NATO
  • Russia and the United States

Natalia Zaslavskaya, Russia\'s Approach to Transatlantic Relations

slide3

Former Eastern Bloc states that joined after the Cold War

  • 12 March1999:
  • Czech Republic
  • Hungary
  • Poland
  • 29 March2004: They were first invited to start talks of membership during the 2002 Prague Summit, and joined NATO on 29 March2004
  • Bulgaria
  • Estonia
  • Latvia
  • Lithuania
  • Romania
  • Slovakia
  • Slovenia

Natalia Zaslavskaya, Russia\'s Approach to Transatlantic Relations

slide5

The EU Today – 15 Member States

  • Belgium
  • Denmark
  • Germany
  • Greece
  • Spain
  • France
  • Ireland
  • Italy
  • Luxembourg
  • The Netherlands
  • Austria
  • Portugal
  • Finland
  • Sweden
  • UK

Natalia Zaslavskaya, Russia\'s Approach to Transatlantic Relations

slide6

European Union 2004 – 10 New Countries

  • Czech Republic
  • Estonia
  • Cyprus
  • Latvia
  • Lithuania
  • Hungary
  • Malta
  • Poland
  • Slovenia
  • Slovakia

Natalia Zaslavskaya, Russia\'s Approach to Transatlantic Relations

slide7

European Union Applicants

  • Potentially in 2007
    • Bulgaria
    • Romania
  • Ever?
    • Turkey

Natalia Zaslavskaya, Russia\'s Approach to Transatlantic Relations

slide8

칼리닌그라드는 발트해에 접해 있는 러시아연방 491개 주(州) 중 한 주로 1945년 포츠담회의에 따라 독일 영토에서 러시아 영토로 편입되었다. 이 지역은 러시아 본토에서 떨어진 고립 영토다. 북동쪽 국경은 리투아니아, 남쪽은 폴란드 서쪽은 발트해에 접해 있다. 15,100km2에 인구는 약 100만명. 가장 가까운 러시아 본토인 프스코프 시에서 600km나 떨어져 있다. 하지만 칼리닌그라드는 러시아의 유일한 발트해 부동항(不凍港)이자, 러시아와 동유럽을 잇는 항구라는 중요한 역할을 하고 있다.

폴란드와 리투아니아 사이에서 샌드위치 신세인 칼리닌그라드는 두 나라가 2004년 유럽연합에 가입하면 유럽연합에 떠 있는 ‘러시아의 섬’이 될 것이다. 현재 칼리닌그라드 주민들은 폴란드, 러시아, 리투아니아 3국 간 무비자 협정으로 세 나라를 자유롭게 드나들 수 있다. 그러나 유럽연합은 솅겐조약에 따라 유럽연합 비회원국 국민들이 회원국을 여행할 때 반드시 비자를 받도록 요구하고 있다.

Natalia Zaslavskaya, Russia\'s Approach to Transatlantic Relations

historical background
Historical Background

Cold War

  • The Soviet Union and the United States: ideological rivals
  • Second half of the 40s: extension of Soviet political influence to Eastern Europe (creation of communist or coalition governments), events in Greece and Turkey
  • Truman doctrine, March 12, 1947: ”to help free peoples to maintain their free institutions and their national integrity against aggressive movements that seek to impose upon them totalitarian regimes”
  • 1949: NATO was established

Natalia Zaslavskaya, Russia\'s Approach to Transatlantic Relations

historical background1
Historical Background

NATO during the Cold War:

”NATO was created to keep America in, Russia out, and Germany down” (Lord Ismay)

NATO – an instrument

  • to keep the US military presence in Europe
  • to remilitarize Germany
  • to protect Western Europe from the Soviet Union

Warsaw Pact:

  • created in 1955
  • to unite the Soviet allies

Natalia Zaslavskaya, Russia\'s Approach to Transatlantic Relations

historical background2
Historical Background
  • No relations between the Soviet Union and NATO

But:

  • Relations between the Soviet Union and the United States
  • Bilateral and Multilateral negotiations on the disamament issues (Détante)

Natalia Zaslavskaya, Russia\'s Approach to Transatlantic Relations

end of the cold war
End of the Cold War

Several important changes

  • The Warsaw Pact was dissolved
  • The Soviet Union collapsed
  • Russia was considered successor of the Soviet Union
  • Democratic reforms in Russia
  • Transformation of Russia’s relations with the ’West’
  • 1991: Russia established relations with NATO

Natalia Zaslavskaya, Russia\'s Approach to Transatlantic Relations

russia and nato
Russia and NATO

Major stages of relations

  • Early 90s
  • Mid 90s – 2001
  • After Sept. 11, 2001
  • Representatives from Moscow first took part in meetings at NATO in 1991, as part of the North Atlantic Cooperation Council (NACC) (later renamed the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council), which was created following the end of the Cold War as a forum for consultation to foster a new cooperative relationship with the countries of Central and Eastern Europe. It was actually while this meeting was taking place that the Soviet Union dissolved.
  • A few years later, in 1994, Russia joined the Partnership for Peace programe – a major programe of practical security and defence cooperation between NATO and individual Partner countries. In 1997, the NATO-Russia "Founding Act" established a NATO-Russia Permanent Joint Council (PJC). The PJC held its last meeting in Reykjavik on May 14, 2002.

Natalia Zaslavskaya, Russia\'s Approach to Transatlantic Relations

russia and nato in early 90s
Russia and NATO in early 90s

Russia was searching for the right strategy

In 1991 – the Russian political elite was divided, 2 points of view:

(1) After the End of Cold War, NATO as one of the elements of the Cold War system should be dissolved

(2) NATO could enlarge and become a pan-European security organization and then Russia could also join it

Natalia Zaslavskaya, Russia\'s Approach to Transatlantic Relations

russia and nato in early 90s1
Russia and NATO in early 90s
  • NATO survived the end of the Cold War and became a major security organization in Europe
  • In 1992 – Yeltsin mentioned that the Russian government had considered NATO’s membership as a long-term objective
  • But the NATO leaders demonstrated cautious reaction

Natalia Zaslavskaya, Russia\'s Approach to Transatlantic Relations

nato and russia in mid 90s 2001
NATO and Russia in mid 90s - 2001

Deterioration between Russia and NATO

Major problems:

  • NATO enlargement
  • Kosovo crisis

But:

Steps forward

  • 1994 – Russia joined PfP programme
  • 1996 - Cooperation in Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • 1997 – NATO-Russia Founding Act on Mutual Relations, Cooperation and Security

Natalia Zaslavskaya, Russia\'s Approach to Transatlantic Relations

slide17

In 1994, Russia joined the Partnership for Peace programe. The Partnership for Peace (PfP) programme was established in 1994 and is based on individual bilateral relations between each partner country and NATO: each country may choose the extent of its participation.

  • In 1996, Russian peacekeepers deployed to Bosnia and Herzegovina to serve alongside Allied counterparts in the NATO-led peacekeeping force.
  • On 27 May 1997, in Paris, the NATO-Russia Founding Act on Mutual Relations, Cooperation and Security was signed, providing the formal basis for NATO-Russia relations. It expressed the common goal of building a lasting and inclusive peace in the Euro-Atlantic area and set up the Permanent Joint Council (PJC) as a forum for regular consultation on security issues of common concern, aimed at helping build mutual confidence through dialogue.
  • In early 1999, differences over NATO\'s air campaign to end political and ethnic repression in the Yugoslav province of Kosovo led Russia to suspend its participation in the PJC. Nevertheless, several activities continued without interruption, including peacekeeping in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Moreover, Russia played a key diplomatic role in resolving the Kosovo crisis and, in June, when the Kosovo Force was eventually deployed, Russian peacekeepers were a part of it.
  • in 2000, upon his election as President of Russia, Vladimir Putin announced that he would work to rebuild relations with NATO in a spirit of pragmatism.

Natalia Zaslavskaya, Russia\'s Approach to Transatlantic Relations

slide18

The terrorist attacks on the United States of 11 September 2001 served as a stark reminder that concerted international action was needed to effectively tackle terrorism and other new security threats. In the immediate aftermath of the terrorist attacks, Russia opened its airspace for the international coalition’s campaign in Afghanistan and shared intelligence to support the anti-terrorist coalition.

High-level contacts between NATO and Russia in the following months, including two meetings of Lord Robertson with President Putin and a meeting of Allied and Russian foreign ministers in December 2001, explored possibilities to give new impetus and substance to the NATO-Russia relationship. Intensive negotiations led to agreement on a joint declaration on “NATO-Russia Relations: A New Quality”, signed by Russian and Allied heads of state and government in Rome on 28 May 2002, which established the NATO-Russia Council.

Natalia Zaslavskaya, Russia\'s Approach to Transatlantic Relations

us and the nato russia relations
US and the NATO-Russia relations
  • 1993-1994 – transformation of Russia’s perception of the United States
  • Now the US was viewed as the main competitor for power and influence both globally and in Europe
  • Russia’s concern about the growing trend towards the establishment of a unipolar world structure

Natalia Zaslavskaya, Russia\'s Approach to Transatlantic Relations

us and the nato russia relations1
US and the NATO-Russia relations

→ Russia started considering the US as a challenge

→ One of the Foreign Policy’s objectives: need to establish a multipolar world

→Policy on prevention of extension of US influence in Europe = NATO enlargement

Natalia Zaslavskaya, Russia\'s Approach to Transatlantic Relations

similar attitudes applied to nato
Similar attitudes applied to NATO

The Alliance was seen as an opponent

  • NATO was remembered as a Cold War enemy
  • It was regarded as the main instrument of American influence and power in Europe
  • It was seen as a foundation for continuing American military presence in Europe

So: NATO as such was not considered a threat but because of strong American influence in this organization

Natalia Zaslavskaya, Russia\'s Approach to Transatlantic Relations

foreign policy objectives
Foreign policy objectives
  • To prevent NATO enlargement
  • To prevent use of force by NATO without UN security Council resolutions
  • To undertake an attempt to organize a competing military block

These objectives and the whole policy was not realistic → eventually failed

Natalia Zaslavskaya, Russia\'s Approach to Transatlantic Relations

nato enlargement problem
NATO enlargement problem
  • There’s no obvious reason for NATO enlargement. Considering the high level of expenditures, the NATO countries should have some important reason to launch the enlargement process
  • This enlargement would undermine Russia’s security because it seems that it was targeted against Russia
  • During the negotiations on the German reunification, the western leader promised Gorbachev that NATO was not going to move eastwards

Natalia Zaslavskaya, Russia\'s Approach to Transatlantic Relations

kosovo crisis 1999
Kosovo crisis (1999)
  • Russia demonstrated tough anti-NATO position
  • Major point of contradiction: use of force without a UN Security Council mandate
  • This policy failed: it undermined Russia’s international influence; Russia found herself semi-isolated on the international arena

Natalia Zaslavskaya, Russia\'s Approach to Transatlantic Relations

russia and nato in mid 90s
Russia and NATO in mid 90s

Still some progress in

NATO-Russian relations:

  • In 1994 Russia joined the Partnership for Peace
  • But it stayed away from the majority of its activities
  • A good opportunity to create normal relations between Russia and NATO was missed

Natalia Zaslavskaya, Russia\'s Approach to Transatlantic Relations

russia and nato in late 90s
Russia and NATO in late 90s

In 1997 – Russia and NATO signed “Founding Act on Mutual Relations, Cooperation and Security between NATO and the Russian Federation”

  • It created mechanism for cooperation between Russia and NATO (Permanent Joint Council),

But: Russia had to agree to the eastern enlargement

  • Yeltsin’s policy of tough resistance to NATO enlargement failed
  • 1999 – Poland, Hungary and the Czech Republic joined NATO

Natalia Zaslavskaya, Russia\'s Approach to Transatlantic Relations

nato russia permanent joint council pjc
NATO-Russia Permanent Joint Council (PJC)

It was a forum for regular consultation on common security issues (peace-keeping, terrorism, nuclear proliferation)

But: the positions on all issues among the 19 Allies were pre-coordinated before discussions with Russia

Different interpretation of certain provisions of the Founding Act:In Russia it was widely perceived that Founding Act allows NATO to undertake non-article 5 missions only when authorized by UN Security Council (where Russia has veto rights) → painful reaction of Russian political elite to Alliance’s Strategic concept of 1999 and bombing of Yugoslavia

Natalia Zaslavskaya, Russia\'s Approach to Transatlantic Relations

nato and russia had positive experience of joint actions
NATO and Russia had positive experience of joint actions

Peacekeeping in the Balkans

  • In 1996 Russian peacekeepers were deployed to Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Russia contributed the largest non-NATO contingent to the UN-mandated, NATO-led peacekeeping forces
  • Close cooperation between NATO and Russia in the Balkans has been critical in improving relations and trust building between the Russian and Allied militaries

Natalia Zaslavskaya, Russia\'s Approach to Transatlantic Relations

putin and his approach to nato s new enlargement
Putin and his approach to NATO’s new enlargement

During the debate over the new enlargement, it became clear that Russia would not be able to prevent it

The major Russia’s concern:

  • Possible NATO membership of the Baltic States (ex-soviet republics, close to St.Petersburg, Kaliningrad problem)

The decision about the next enlargement was postponed till November 2002

Natalia Zaslavskaya, Russia\'s Approach to Transatlantic Relations

sept 11 2001
Sept. 11, 2001
  • But Sept. 11, 2001 – radical improvement of the relations between Russia and the United States
  • Cooperation in the War Against Terrorism
  • Cooperation in the framework of NATO
  • Improved relations with NATO

Natalia Zaslavskaya, Russia\'s Approach to Transatlantic Relations

improvement of nato russia relations
Improvement of NATO-Russia relations
  • Tony Blaire: started discussion on the ways how Russia could be involved into NATO activities
  • 2 alternatives:
    • Russia’s membership in NATO
    • Creation of new structure that would include both NATO and Russia

Natalia Zaslavskaya, Russia\'s Approach to Transatlantic Relations

the rome summit
The Rome summit
  • May 2002
  • Declaration on ”NATO-Russia Relations: a New Quality”
  • NATO-Russia Council (NRC) instead of Permanent Joint Council

Natalia Zaslavskaya, Russia\'s Approach to Transatlantic Relations

the prague summit
The Prague summit

President Putin did not attend the Prague summit in order to avoid appearing to welcome NATO\'s invitation to ex-Soviet states Lithuania, Estonia and Latvia.

Natalia Zaslavskaya, Russia\'s Approach to Transatlantic Relations

the prague summit1
The Prague summit

Russian position

  • No need for NATO expansion.

President Putin (24 June 2002):

    • “We do not think that NATO enlargement improves somebody’s security neither of the countries joining NATO nor of the organization itself”

Igor Ivanov (Minister of Foreign Affairs):

    • Russia is against the "mechanical expansion" of NATO
  • But this time Russia was not going to risk her relations with NATO and its Member States in attempt to prevent enlargement

Natalia Zaslavskaya, Russia\'s Approach to Transatlantic Relations

russia s reaction to the second wave of the eastern enlargement
Russia’s reaction to the second wave of the eastern enlargement

was determined by several factors:

  • Russia was interested in cooperation with NATO
  • The security situation had been changing and major external threats to the Russian security were coming not from the West but from the South
  • Rome Declaration and establishment of NATO-Russia Council provided a framework for further cooperation between NATO and Russia

Natalia Zaslavskaya, Russia\'s Approach to Transatlantic Relations

slide36

NATO Expansion:

A number of other countries have also expressed a wish to join the alliance, including Albania, the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Georgia and Croatia.

Georgia (currently implementing IPAP). On 21 September2006, NATO members voted to admit Georgia into the process of "Intensified Dialogue", which is the first step into the membership of NATO.

Natalia Zaslavskaya, Russia\'s Approach to Transatlantic Relations

slide37

Ukraine:

NATO-Ukraine relations date back to 1991, when Ukraine joined the North Atlantic Cooperation Council in 1991 (later renamed the Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council), immediately upon achieving independence with the break-up of the Soviet Union. A few years later, in 1994, Ukraine became the first of the Commonwealth of Independent States to join the Partnership for Peace (PfP)

The formal basis for NATO-Ukraine relations is provided by the 1997 NATO-Ukraine Charter on a Distinctive Partnership. The Charter identified areas for consultation and cooperation and established the NATO-Ukraine Commission (NUC) to take work forward. Steps were taken to deepen and broaden the NATO-Ukraine relationship in November 2002 with the adoption of the NATO-Ukraine Action Plan. The launch of the Intensified Dialogue in April 2005 marks a milestone in NATO-Ukraine relations. It is a clear signal that NATO Allies support Ukraines integration aspirations. A final decision concerning Ukraine\'s membership in NATO is expected to be made in 2008, with full membership possible by 2010.

Currently a majority of Ukrainian citizens oppose NATO membership. Protests have taken place by opposition blocs against the idea, and petitions signed urging the end of relations with NATO. Prime Minister Yuriy Yekhanurov has indicated Ukraine will not enter NATO as long as the public continues opposing the move. Plans for membership were shelved on 14 September2006 due to the overwhelming disapproval of NATO membership.

Natalia Zaslavskaya, Russia\'s Approach to Transatlantic Relations

slide38

Currently IPAPs are in implementation with the following countries:

  • Georgia (19 May2006)
  • Azerbaijan (27 May2005)
  • Armenia (16 December2005)
  • Kazakhstan (31 January2006)
  • Moldova (19 May2006)
  • Launched at the November 2002 Prague Summit, Individual Partnership Action Plans (IPAPs) are open to countries that have the political will and ability to deepen their relationship with NATO.

Natalia Zaslavskaya, Russia\'s Approach to Transatlantic Relations

slide39

Russia and NATO today

NATO-Russia Council (NRC): President Bush and the other NATO Heads of State and Government have agreed with Russian President Putin to establish the NATO-Russia Council (NRC).

The NRC, established at the NATO-Russia Summit in Rome on 28 May 2002, replaced the Permanent Joint Council (PJC), a forum for consultation and cooperation created by the 1997 NATO-Russia Founding Act on Mutual Relations, Cooperation and Security, which remains the formal basis for NATO-Russia relations. The spirit of meetings has dramatically changed under the NRC, in which Russia and NATO member states meet as equals “at 27” – instead of in the bilateral “NATO+1” format under the PJC.

The decision to establish the NRC was taken in the wake of the September 2001 terrorist attacks, which reinforced the need for coordinated action to respond to common threats. It signaled the determination to give the NATO-Russia partnership new impetus and substance, and demonstrated the shared resolve of NATO member states and Russia to work more closely together towards the common goal :Assessment of the terrorist threat , Non-proliferation , Arms Control and Confidence-Building Measures, Search and Rescue at Sea , Military-to-Military Cooperation, Civil Emergencies .

Natalia Zaslavskaya, Russia\'s Approach to Transatlantic Relations

russia and nato today
NATO-Russia Council

27 Member States

Chaired by NATO Secretary General

Levels:

summits,

ministerial meetings,

meetings of ambassadors and military representatives

Russia’s representation at NATO

Diplomatic mission to NATO

Military Branch Offices

Major areas for cooperation

Combating terrorism

Non-proliferation

Theatre missile defence

Airspace Management

Crisis management

Military-to-military cooperation

Russia and NATO today

Natalia Zaslavskaya, Russia\'s Approach to Transatlantic Relations

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