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Welcome to B.A.R.K.’s TECHNICIAN CLASS. Your Computer goes Ham Digital # 12. Your Computer. It is often be argued that Morse code is actually a digital signal because it is a binary transmission, a short and a long tone. Amateurs use the International Morse code. Your Computer.

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Welcome to b a r k s technician class l.jpg

Welcome to B.A.R.K.’sTECHNICIAN CLASS

Your Computer goes Ham Digital

# 12


Your computer l.jpg

Your Computer

It is often be argued that Morse code is actually a digital signal

because it is a binary transmission, a short and a long tone.

Amateurs use the International Morse code.


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Your Computer

Morse code can be sent by three different methods :

a straight key, an electronic keyer or by keyboard/ software.


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Your Computer

Amateurs are always at the forefront of technology. When

computers first became available they were quickly co-opted

into the radio shack. In fact, amateurs invented a system of

sending data by radio long before the Internet boom.


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Your Computer

The computer’s sound card takes audio from you transceiver

to the microphone input where the received audio is converted

to a digital form.

Rigblaster

Often another piece of hardware, such as a Rigblaster or a

Signal Link, is used to control the transceiver microphone switch

from the computer as well as transmitting and receiving audio.

Signal Link USB


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Your Computer

Amateurs developed their own digital transmission software.

The most common types of digital transmissions on the amateur

radio bands include, packet radio, PSK31 and MFSK.

Most software developed by amateur radio operators is free

or shareware. The more intricate software, such as satellite

tracking programs, is available for a nominal fee.


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Your Computer

Packet radio was the first digital communication system

developed by amateurs. The Tucson Amateur Packet Radio

Club played a major role in developing the software and hardware

necessary for this mode.

Packet radio was considered cutting edge technology during the

1980’s and early 1990’s and large radio networks were built to

transmit data across the country. Although still used on the HF

bands by packet enthusiasts, packet has significantly waned

since the Internet boom.

FM packet radio continues to be a common mode for digital

satellite communications.


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Your Computer

Packet radio uses an AX.25 packet format. The format requires

a terminal node controller (TNC) to interface between a radio

and a computer.

A TNC assembles and disassembles data packets. TNC’s

also have an internal modem to convert baseband digital

signals to audio tones. The audio tones are transmitted over

the air and then reassembled. They are then converted back to

data by a TNC at the receive site.


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Your Computer

  • Packet Radio includes some attractive features:

  • Check sum for error detection

  • - Packet header which contains call sign of the station

  • to which the data is being sent

  • Parity bit- an extra code element used to detect errors

  • in received data

  • Automatic repeat request in the case of error


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Your Computer

Before we discuss more digital transmission systems, let’s talk about the problems associated with sending and receiving data by radio frequencies.

The ionosphere is the part of our atmosphere that refracts radio

waves. The ionosphere is constantly changing in height and

depth AND is subject to atmospheric noise. Signal fading and

noise is detrimental to digital transmissions.

Additionally, RF signals are subject to multiple paths. VHF and

UHF data signals that propagate over multiple paths will likely

have increased bit error rates (BER).


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Your Computer

In 1998 Phase Shift Keying 31 Baud was introduced.

PSK31 is a low rate data transmission mode that has

two advantages:

- It occupies vary little bandwidth

-It is an effective low-power communication method.

Digipan PSK31 Software

The blue colored

signal display is called

the “Waterfall”.


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Your Computer

APRS= Automatic Packet Reporting System.

APRS is a digital communications protocol for exchanging information between a large number of stations covering a large area.

.

An amateur station used to connect

other APRS stations through the Internet

is called a “Gateway”.


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Your Computer

The data propagated by digipeaters may be location reports, local weather information or text messages.

Often a GPS is utilized for automatic location reports.

Kenwood dual bander plugged into the Avmap G5 GPS position plotter.


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Your Computer

VOIP = Voice Over the Internet Protocol.

Amateurs use the Internet to inter-connect repeaters. The two most common VOIP

systems are Internet Radio Linking Project (IRLP), and Echolink.

You can find active VOIP nodes in the ARRL Repeater Directory.


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Your Computer

Echolink and IRLP- You can connect to other Echolink nodes by

through a simplex radio, a repeater or directly from your computer.

IRLP node can not be connected to directly by a computer.

When using a portable radio select connect to an active IRLP or

Echolink node by using your radio’s keypad to transmit

the node ID number.


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Your Computer

16


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Your Computer

Amateur also use fast and slow scan television. The standard

television format is NTSC (National Television Standard Code).

Also referred to as Never Twice the Same Color!


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Your Computer

Amateurs can use the 6 meter band for remote control

of models.

Because RC transmitters are not capable of being programmed to

send a station identification, they are required to have a label listing

the operator’s name, call sign and address affixed to the transmitter.


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Your Computer

The maximum power allowed when transmitting telecommand signals to radio controlled models is 1 watt.

Hams can use the 6-Meter Band to radio control a model aircraft.


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Let’s Review !


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T8D09 What code is used when sending CW in the amateur bands?A. BaudotB. HammingC. International MorseD. Gray


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T8D09 (C)What code is used when sending CW in the amateur bands?A. BaudotB. HammingC. International MorseD. Gray


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T8D10 Which of the following can be used to transmit CW in the amateur bands?A. Straight KeyB. Electronic KeyerC. Computer KeyboardD. All of these choices are correct


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T8D10 (D)Which of the following can be used to transmit CW in the amateur bands?A. Straight KeyB. Electronic KeyerC. Computer KeyboardD. All of these choices are correct


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T8D01 Which of the following is an example of a digital communications method?A. PacketB. PSK31C. MFSKD. All of these choices are correct


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T8D01 (D)Which of the following is an example of a digital communications method?A. Packet B. PSK31 C. MFSKD. All of these choices are correct


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T4A06 Which of the following would be connected between a transceiver and computer in a packet radio station?A. TransmatchB. MixerC. Terminal node controllerD. Antenna


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T4A06 (C)Which of the following would be connected between a transceiver and computer in a packet radio station?A. Transmatch B. MixerC. Terminal node controllerD. Antenna


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T4A07 How is the computer’s sound card used when conducting digital communications using a computer?A. The sound card communicates between the computer CPU and the video displayB. The sound card records the audio frequency for video displayC. The sound card provides audio to the microphone input and converts received audio to digital formD. All of these choices are correct


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T4A07 (C)How is the computer’s sound card used when conducting digital communications using a computer?A. The sound card communicates between the computer CPU and the video display B. The sound card records the audio frequency for video displayC. The sound card provides audio to the microphone input and converts received audio to digital formD. All of these choices are correct


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T8D08 Which of the following may be included in packet transmissions?A. A check sum which permits error detectionB. A header which contains the call sign of the station to which the information is being sentC. Automatic repeat request in case of errorD. All of these choices are correct


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T8D08 (D)Which of the following may be included in packet transmissions?A. A check sum which permits error detectionB. A header which contains the call sign of the station to which the information is being sentC. Automatic repeat request in case of errorD. All of these choices are correct


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T8D11What is a "parity" bit?A. A control code required for automatic position reportingB. A timing bit used to ensure equal sharing of a frequencyC. An extra code element used to detect errors in received dataD. A "triple width" bit used to signal the end of a character


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T8D11 (C)What is a "parity" bit?A. A control code required for automatic position reportingB. A timing bit used to ensure equal sharing of a frequencyC. An extra code element used to detect errors in received dataD. A "triple width" bit used to signal the end of a character


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T3A11 Which part of the atmosphere enables the propagation of radio signals around the world?A. The stratosphereB. The troposphereC. The ionosphereD. The magnetosphere


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T3A11 (C)Which part of the atmosphere enables the propagation of radio signals around the world?A. The stratosphere B. The troposphereC. The ionosphereD. The magnetosphere


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T7B12 What does the acronym "BER" mean when applied to digital communications systems?A. Baud Enhancement RecoveryB. Baud Error RemovalC. Bit Error RateD. Bit Exponent Resource


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T7B12 (C)What does the acronym "BER" mean when applied to digital communications systems?A. Baud Enhancement RecoveryB. Baud Error RemovalC. Bit Error RateD. Bit Exponent Resource


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T3A10 What may occur if VHF or UHF data signals propagate over multiple paths?A. Transmission rates can be increased by a factor equal to the number of separate paths observedB. Transmission rates must be decreased by a factor equal to the number of separate paths observedC. No significant changes will occur if the signals are transmitting using FMD. Error rates are likely to increase


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T3A10 (D)What may occur if VHF or UHF data signals propagate over multiple paths?A. Transmission rates can be increased by a factor equal to the number of separate paths observedB. Transmission rates must be decreased by a factor equal to the number of separate paths observedC. No significant changes will occur if the signals are transmitting using FMD. Error rates are likely to increase


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T8B11 What is a commonly used method of sending signals to and from a digital satellite?A. USB AFSKB. PSK31C. FM PacketD. WSJT


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T8B11 (C)What is a commonly used method of sending signals to and from a digital satellite?A. USB AFSKB. PSK31C. FM PacketD. WSJT


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T8D02 What does the term APRS mean?A. Automatic Position Reporting SystemB. Associated Public Radio StationC. Auto Planning Radio Set-upD. Advanced Polar Radio System


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T8D02 (A)What does the term APRS mean?A. Automatic Position Reporting SystemB. Associated Public Radio StationC. Auto Planning Radio Set-upD. Advanced Polar Radio System


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T8D03 Which of the following is normally used when sending automatic location reports via amateur radio?A. A connection to the vehicle speedometerB. A WWV receiverC. A connection to a broadcast FM sub-carrier receiverD. A Global Positioning System receiver


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T8D03 (D)Which of the following is normally used when sending automatic location reports via amateur radio?A. A connection to the vehicle speedometerB. A WWV receiverC. A connection to a broadcast FM sub-carrier receiverD. A Global Positioning System receiver


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T8D06 What does the abbreviation PSK mean?A. Pulse Shift KeyingB. Phase Shift KeyingC. Packet Short KeyingD. Phased Slide Keying


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T8D06 (B)What does the abbreviation PSK mean?A. Pulse Shift KeyingB. Phase Shift KeyingC. Packet Short KeyingD. Phased Slide Keying


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T8D07 What is PSK31?A. A high-rate data transmission modeB. A method of reducing noise interference to FM signalsC. A method of compressing digital television signalD. A low-rate data transmission mode


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T8D07 (D)What is PSK31?A. A high-rate data transmission modeB. A method of reducing noise interference to FM signalsC. A method of compressing digital television signalD. A low-rate data transmission mode


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T8C11 What name is given to an amateur radio station that is used to connect other amateur stations to the Internet?A. A gatewayB. A repeaterC. A digipeaterD. A beacon


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T8C11 (A)What name is given to an amateur radio station that is used to connect other amateur stations to the Internet?A. A gatewayB. A repeaterC. A digipeaterD. A beacon


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T8C09 How might you obtain a list of active nodes that use VoIP?A. From the FCC RulebookB. From your local emergency coordinatorC. From a repeater directoryD. From the local repeater frequency coordinator


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T8C09 (C)How might you obtain a list of active nodes that use VoIP?A. From the FCC RulebookB. From your local emergency coordinatorC. From a repeater directoryD. From the local repeater frequency coordinator


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T8C10 How do you select a specific IRLP node when using a portable transceiver?A. Choose a specific CTCSS toneB. Choose the correct DSC toneC. Access the repeater autopatchD. Use the keypad to transmit the IRLP node ID


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T8C10 (D)How do you select a specific IRLP node when using a portable transceiver?A. Choose a specific CTCSS toneB. Choose the correct DSC toneC. Access the repeater autopatchD. Use the keypad to transmit the IRLP node ID


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T8C08 What is required in place of on-air station identification when sending signals to a radio control model using amateur frequencies?A. Voice identification must be transmitted every 10 minutesB. Morse code ID must be sent once per hr.C. A label indicating the licensee’s name, call sign and address must be affixed to the transmitterD. A flag must be affixed to the transmitter antenna with the station call sign in 1 inch high letters or larger


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T8C08 (C)What is required in place of on-air station identification when sending signals to a radio control model using amateur frequencies?A. Voice identification must be transmitted every 10 minutesB. Morse code ID must be sent once per hr.C. A label indicating the licensee’s name, call sign and address must be affixed to the transmitterD. A flag must be affixed to the transmitter antenna with the station call sign in 1 inch high letters or larger


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T8D04 What type of transmission is indicated by the term NTSC?A. A Normal Transmission mode in Static CircuitB. A special mode for earth satellite uplinkC. An analog fast scan color TV signalD. A frame compression scheme for TV signals


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T8D04 (C)What type of transmission is indicated by the term NTSC?A. A Normal Transmission mode in Static CircuitB. A special mode for earth satellite uplinkC. An analog fast scan color TV signalD. A frame compression scheme for TV signals


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Thank You !

Your Computer goes Ham Digital

# 12


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