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Chapter 3-review. Some Electrical Properties of Aqueous Solutions. Reactions that Form Precipitates -Write molecular equation -Check solubility A. Aqueous: mixture of substance in water B. Soluble: dissolves in water IA salts, NH 4 + ,NO 3 - , C 2 H 3 O 2 - , chlorates, perchlorates )

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Chapter 3-review

Some Electrical Properties of Aqueous Solutions

  • Reactions that Form Precipitates

  • -Write molecular equation

  • -Check solubility

    • A. Aqueous: mixture of substance in water

  • B. Soluble: dissolves in water IA salts, NH4+,NO3-, C2H3O2- , chlorates, perchlorates)

  • C. Insoluble: does not dissolve in water OH-, S2-, CO3 2–, PO43– except Li+, Na+, K+, NH4+ etc)

  • D. Solubility rules of halides ad sulfates check from book- mostly soluble with exceptions!!

  • REVIEW CHAPTERS 4,5, 6(part)

    Chapter 4

    • Single- Double displacement reactions

    • Precipitation reactions

      • Must know solubility charts

    • Gas forming reactions (H2CO3 breaks into H2O and CO2)

      • H2SO3 as produced as product breaks into H2O and SO2

    • Reactions of Acids and Bases-Forms salt and water

      • Acids produce H+ , bases produce OH- --Arrhenius Definition

      • Bronsted-Lowry Definition: AcidsH+ donor and bases H+ accepter

      • Strong and Weak acids (memorize strong acids)

    This is the net ionic equation for the reaction.

    • Reactions that Form Precipitates

    • -Write molecular equation

    • -Check solubility

      • A. Aqueous: mixture of substance in water

  • B. Soluble: dissolves in water Li+, Na+, K+, NH4+,NO3-, C2H3O2-

  • C. Insoluble: does not dissolve in water (CO3 2–, PO43– except Li, Na, K, NH4 etc)

  • D. Solubility rules –Check Handout I gave in recitation

  • Write Equation in Solutions

  • Learn to write Molecular, Ionic and net ionic equation keeping in mind the solubility rules

  • gas forming reactions

  • Reactions Involving Oxidation and Reduction-Redox,

    Single Dispalcement Reactions

    • -Oxidation involves LOSS of Electrons “OIL”

    • Reduction involves GAIN of Electrons “RIG”

    • Oxidation Number (ON) rules:


    Single -displacement reaction,. Activity series in metals

    Oxidizing agents get reduced in a reaction

    Reducing agents get oxidized in reaction

    Look up Single-Double displacement lab & quiz4 for Practice

    Chapter 4

    • Stoichiometry – Simple one

    • Stoichiometry – Limiting reagent

    • % yield

    • Combustion Analysis to find empirical formula chapter 3

    Specifying Solution Concentration: Molarity

    A. Molarity (M) =

    B. Volume of solution, not just solvent

    C. Units always mol/L

    D. Ion concentrations

    Solution Stoichiometry

    A. Balanced chemical equations give molar ratios only

    B. Convert volume to moles using molarity, then use balanced chemical equation

    Dilution Equation: M1 V1 = M2 V2

    Solution Stoichiometry

    Mass of ppt formed (remember use molarity and volume in L to get moles)

    Titrations ACID-BASE

    At end point moles of H+ = moles of OH-

    1:1 Stoichiometry Ma Va = Mb Vb (eg. HCl vs NaOH)

    MONOprotic acid :DihydroxyBase Ma Va = 2*Mb Vb (HCl vs Ca(OH)2

    DiproticAcid : 1hydroxybase 2* Ma Va = Mb Vb (H2SO4 vs NaOH)

    Make up more combinations!

    Chapter 5 Gases aluminum sulfate?

    Gas Pressure

    Units Atm, Torr = mm Hg, pascal = Newton/m2, lbs/in2

    P = h x density x g

    Memorize 1 atm = 760Torr

    Boyle’s Law: The Pressure-Volume Relationship

    AT CONSTANT T, n :P is inversely proportional to V or PV = constant

    P1V1 = P2V2

    Charles’s Law: The Temperature-Volume Relationship

    AT CONSTANT n, P: V is directly proportional to T or V/T = constant

    V1/T1 = V2 /T2

    Avogadro’s Law: The Mole-Volume Relationship

    AT CONSTANT T, P: V is directly proportional to n or V/n = constant

    V1/n1 = V2 /n2


    The Combined Gas Law- When all (P,V, N, T) are varying

    The Ideal Gas Law: Derived from combined gas law, nothing varying

    At any condition, PV = nRT

    P= pressure in atm, V= volume in liters, n = # of moles, T= temp in KELVIN

    R = gas constant 0.082 Liter atm/Kelvin mole

    Density d = MP/RT where M= molar mass of the gas

    M = dRT/P

    Gases in Reaction Stoichiometry

    At STP (T=273K, P = 1Atm) 1 mole of a gas occupies 22.4L

    - Use gas laws to convert into moles of reactant or product

    - Use reaction stoichiometry to convert moles of A to moles of B

    Mixtures of Gases: Dalton’s Law of Partial Pressures

    Definition of mole fraction x

    The Kinetic-Molecular Theory: Some Quantitative Aspects

    The root mean square speed RMS

    effusion rate inversely proportional to Square root of mass

    Chapter 6 Thermochemistry varying

    Energy Thermochemistry: Some Basic Terms

    - Open system Energy and mass exchange

    - Closed system Only energy wxcahge

    - Isolated No exchange

    In an exothermic process the system gives off heat to the surroundingsQ (system) = -ve

    In an endothermic process the system absorbs heat from the surroundings (heat enters the system Q (system) = +ve

    W = -PDV

    Work done on the system W = +ve, volume decreases

    Work done by the system Expansion W = -ve, volume increases

    Internal Energy (U), State Functions, and the First Law of Thermodynamics

    Keep track of sign of q and w

    Increase in internal energy DU +ve

    Decrease in internal energy DU -ve

    Heats of Reaction and Enthalpy Change,DH

    –State Function and Extensive Property (depends on mass, moles etc)

    -Heat exchange in chemical reaction under constant T and P

    Exothermic DH = -ve ; Endothermic = DH =+ve

    Calorimetry: Measuring Quantities of Heat varying-IMPORTANT

    Read definitions of heat capacity (cal/ºC) and Specific heat (cal/g ºC)

    Specific of heat of water = 1cal/g ºC

    Heat absorbed = q =

    Calorimetry problems:

    Heat lost by hot metal or reaction = Heat gained by Calorimeter or water

    DT = -ve !!! DT = +ve !!!

    Heat absorbed by calorimeter = qcalor = +ve = heat capacity X DT

    • Heat changes in change of state

    • Melting, Vaporization, sublimation, condensation, deposition

    • Heat exchange in chemical reactions

    • Hess’s Law problems

    • Standard enthalpy and DH for reaction =

    • sum of DH for products - sum of DH for reactants

    • Remember DH formation at standard state for elements in natural form =0

    • And for compounds we must form 1 mole of compounds using elements in natural state Formation of CaCO3 (s) is Ca(s) + C (gr,S) + 3/2 O2 CaCO3 (s)

    0 varying

    EXAM 2- 100 POINTS

    10 points Bonus question!!

    Part 1 Multiple Choice –Show calculations for partial/full credit

    20 questions 3 POINTS EACH in Room T123 9:30am

    Part 2 Math Problems in Lab

    Bonus question: 10 points –HARD! Partial credit!