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The Dutch "Golden Age" PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The Dutch "Golden Age". (1580s - 1670s). Look for the slides with writing. Study the rest – I will check on Friday!!. The Netherlands: The “Low Country”. Government. 1. The government was dominated by the bourgeoisie whose wealth and power limited the power of the state

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The Dutch "Golden Age"

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"Golden Age"

(1580s - 1670s)

Look for the slides with writing. Study the rest – I will check on Friday!!

TheNetherlands:The “LowCountry”


1. The government was dominated by the bourgeoisie whose wealth and power limited the power of the state

2. Government was run by representative institutions

  • The government consisted of an organized confederation of seven provinces, each with representative gov’t

    • Each province sent a representative to the Estates General

    • Holland and Zeeland were the two richest and most influential provinces

    • Each province and city was autonomous (self-governing)

    • Each province elected a stadholder (governor) and military leader

    • During times of crisis, all seven provinces would elect the same stadholder, usually from the House of Orange.

17c: The “Dutch” Century

  • A certain level of religious toleration.

    • 1.Calvinism was the dominant religion but was split between the Dutch Reformed (who were the majority and the most powerful) and Arminian factions

      • a. Arminianism: Calvinism without the belief in predestination

      • b. Arminians enjoyed full rights after 1632

      • c. Consisted of much of the merchant class

    • 2. Catholics and Jews also enjoyed religious toleration but had fewer rights.

    • 3. Religious toleration enabled the Netherlands to foster a cosmopolitan society that promoted trade

  • Stable, thriving economy.

  • “Golden Age” of artists and thinkers.

    • Religion and everyday life were recurring themes in their art.



Dutch Society

  • Amsterdam, Rotterdam: granaries with enough surplus for one year.

  • Generally higher salaries than in any other parts of W. Europe.

    • Even women had higher wages.

  • “Protestant work ethic.”

    • Thrift and frugality.

  • Had the highest standard of living in Europe!

View of DoerdrechtAelbert Cuyp, 1650s

Oude Kerk [Old Church], Amsterdam

First built in 1300.

Interior of the Oude Kerk in Amsterdam - Emmanuel De Witt

Catholic “Hidden” Churchin the Attic, Amsterdam, 1630s

Interior of a Portuguese Synagogue in Amsterdam – Emmanuel De Witte

Portrait of an Old Jewish ManRembrandt, 1654

Beware of Luxury – Jan Steen

“Genre” Painting

Still Life with Gilt GobletWilliam Heda, 1635

“Genre” Painting

Upper-class Homes, AmsterdamEarly 1600s

Patrician Houses Along the Canal in Leiden

The Burgher of Delft & HisDaughter – Jan Steen

The Leiden Baker & His WifeJan Steen

A Young Woman with a Water Jug - Jan Vermeer, 1662

Girl with a Pearl EarringJan Vermeer, 1665

The Dutch Economy

  • **Fishing was the cornerstone of the Dutch economy

    • Major industries included textiles, furniture, fine woolen goods, sugar refining, tobacco cutting, brewing, pottery, glass, printing, paper making, weapons manufacturing and ship building

  • Not much inflation.

    • Offered far lower interest rates than English banks; this was the major reason for its banking dominance

  • Masters of the “carrying trade” (lowest shipping rates in Europe).

    • Did not have government controls and monopolies that interfered with free enterprise

Dutch East India Company

  • Dutch East India Company and Dutch West India Company organized as cooperative ventures of private enterprise and the state

  • a. DEIC challenged the Portuguese in East including South Africa, Sri Lanka, and parts of Indonesia.

  • b. DWIC traded extensively with Latin American and Africa

17c Dutch Global Commerce

Dutch East India Ship, mid-17c

Return of the Dutch East IndiaFleet, 1599

Amsterdam Stock Market (Bourse)Emmanuel De Witte, 1653

Jewish refugees helped found it in 1602.

Sampling Officials of the Drapers Guild – Rembrandt - 1662

The Lace MakerNicolaes Maes

The Lace MakerJan Vermeer, 1669-1670

The Account KeeperNicolaes Maes, 1656

A Woman Holding a BalanceJan Vermeer, 1662

View of DelftJan Vermeer, 1660-1661


English Delftware

Dutch West IndiaCompany, 1621


18c Delftware Tobacco Jars

Fort Orange (Albany, NY)in New Netherlands

New Amsterdam (NYC)

Settled in 1624.

Official Flag of the NYC Seal of the City of NY.

New Amsterdam (NYC)

Early 20c Dutch Revival Building in NYC.

Dutch East India Company, 1602

“Africa” Center PanelJan van der Heyden, 1664-66

The Dutch in Japan, 18c

Dutch Ship in NagasakiLate 18c



The Dutch Federation


- provincial level

- held virtually all the power

- strong advocates of local independence


- States General representative from each province

- responsible for defense and order


- federal assembly

- foreign affairs (war)

- all issues had to be referred to the local Estates

Foreign policy

  • 1. Dutch participation against the Hapsburgs in the Thirty Years’ War led to its recognition as an independent country, free from Spanish influence

  • 2. War with England and France in the 1670s damaged the United Provinces

  •  Dikes in Holland were opened in 1672 and much of the region was flooded in order to prevent the French army from taking Amsterdam.

  • 3. By the end of the War of Spanish Succession in 1713, the Dutch Republic saw a significant economic decline

  •  Britain and France were now the two dominant powers in the Atlantic trade.

The Spanish Hapsburgs & Europe(1556)

Philip II consolidated Hapsburg landsat the end of the 16c.

The Spanish Netherlands:Union of Utrecht, 1579

The United Provinces still recognized Spanish rule, but, in 1581, they declared their independence.

The Netherlands (1609)

The Night Watch – Rembrandt, 1642

Anglo-Dutch Wars

  • First Anglo-Dutch War: 1660-1665

  • Second Anglo-Dutch War: 1665-1667

  • Third Anglo-Dutch War: 1674-1678

King William III Queen Mary II ascend the throne of England in 1689 after the Glorious Revolution.

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