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Moisture in the Air. Key Terms. Evaporation – the process by which water molecules escape into the air. Humidity – water vapor or moisture, in the air. Relative humidity – the percent of moisture the air holds relative to the amount it could hold at a certain temperature.

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key terms
Key Terms
  • Evaporation – the process by which water molecules escape into the air.
  • Humidity – water vapor or moisture, in the air.
  • Relative humidity – the percent of moisture the air holds relative to the amount it could hold at a certain temperature.
measuring relative humidity
Measuring Relative Humidity
  • Psychrometer – device used to measure relative humidity.
    • Consists of 2 thermometers.
    • One is covered with a moist cloth.
    • When air passes over wet cloth, water evaporates and temperature cools.
measuring relative humidity1
Measuring Relative Humidity
  • Differences in temperature between 2 bulbs is used to determine relative humidity
  • Compare temp difference (degrees difference) to dry thermometer temp
    • Look up relative humidity in chart
clouds
Clouds
  • Form when moisture in the air condenses on small particles of dust or other solids in the air.
  • Mixture in which particles of water are suspended in air.
cloud formation
Cloud Formation
  • Warm air can hold more moisture than cold air.
  • As air rises it cools.
  • Air becomes saturated with water.
    • Holds maximum amount of water.
  • Water vapor in air condenses  clouds form.
    • Dew point – the temp. at which water vapor condenses.
cumulus clouds
Cumulus clouds
  • “Fluffy” clouds
  • Flat bottom
  • Usually indicate fair weather
    • Can produce thunderstorms
stratus clouds
Stratus Clouds
  • Smooth, gray
  • Cover the entire sky
  • Associated with light rain and drizzle
  • When close to ground  fog
cirrus clouds
Cirrus Clouds
  • Thin and feathery, made of ice crystals
  • Can be seen in fair weather
  • May indicate that rain or snow will fall in several hours.
  • A.k.a. – mares’ tails
special types of clouds
Special Types of Clouds
  • Cirrostratus -high-level clouds composed of ice crystals
    • can cover the entire sky
    • relatively transparent, as the sun or the moon can easily be seen through them
  • Cumulonimbus – thunderclouds
  • Nimbostratus - dark, low-level clouds accompanied by light to moderately falling precipitation
precipitation
Precipitation
  • Water vapor that condenses and falls to Earth
    • Ex. – rain, sleet, snow
  • Formation:
    • Cloud droplets increase in size by colliding and combining with other droplets
    • Droplets become to heavy, and are pulled down by gravity
slide12
Snow
  • Forms when water vapor turns directly into a solid
  • 6-sided flakes (ice crystals)
slide13
Hail
  • Forms in cumulonimbus clouds
  • Small chunks of ice
  • Formed when water droplets hit ice pellets in clouds and freeze
  • Can be held in clouds by winds and grow in size before falling
measuring rainfall
Measuring Rainfall
  • Rain gauge
    • Straight sided container with flat bottom
    • Collects rain over a given period of time
    • Usually measure in mm or cm
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