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Best Practices For Deploying MySQL on Solaris . Ritu Kamboj Jenny Chen. Agenda. MySQL -Solaris Integration MySQL High Availability Data Service Consolidate MySQL Deployment Using Solaris Containers DTrace (Jenny Chen)‏. MySQL-Solaris Integration. Optimized MySQL on Open Solaris.

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agenda
Agenda
  • MySQL -Solaris Integration
  • MySQL High Availability Data Service
  • Consolidate MySQL Deployment Using Solaris Containers
  • DTrace (Jenny Chen)‏
optimized mysql on open solaris
Optimized MySQL on Open Solaris
  • MySQL 5.0.45 (32bit) integrated with Open Solaris build 76
    • SXDE 01/08
  • MySQL 5.0.45 (64bit) integrated with Open Solaris build 87
    • SXCE
layout of mysql on open solaris
Layout of MySQL on Open Solaris
  • MySQL 5.0.45 packages
    • Default data directory
      • /var/mysql/5.0/data
    • Default configuration directory
      • /etc/mysql/5.0
    • Installation directory
      • /usr/mysql/5.0/
  • Latest version accessible from /usr/mysql/bin
    • Symbolic link from all directories involved in 5.0.45 release to corresponding /usr/mysql
optimization of mysql on open solaris
Optimization Of MySQL On Open Solaris
  • Compiled with optimal compiler options using Sun Studio compilers
  • Added SMF support for MySQL
    • Easily accommodates varying configurations
    • Initializes MySQL database thereby enhancing user experience
    • Mysql user can manage MySQL database via SMF
  • Support for MySQL cluster engine (ndb)‏
compiler optimization
Compiler Optimization
  • Enable in-lining
    • Change header file univ.i to add Sun Studio
      • If (!defined(SUNPRO_C)‏
      • #define UNIV_MUST_NOT_INLINE
  • Enable pre-fetching
    • -xprefetch=auto and -xprefetch_level=3
  • Set optimization level
    • -xO4
compiler optimization contd
Compiler Optimization (Contd)‏
  • Feedback optimization (not yet implemented)‏
    • Workload is key
    • -xprofile -xipo
    • Interprocess optimization
    • About 10% improvement
  • Link with libmtmalloc
      • Library for threaded application
      • About 8% improvement
service management facility smf
Service Management Facility (SMF)‏
  • Makes Solaris Services Self-Healing
  • Services automatically restart in dependency order
  • Misbehaving and mis-configured services are easier to debug
    • Log files for each service
  • Administrators can securely delegate tasks to non-root users
mysql service management facility
MySQL-Service Management Facility
  • Dynamically configured properties
    • mysql/bin
      • Installation , default : /usr/mysql/5.0/bin
    • mysql/data
      • Data Directory , Default: /var/mysql/5.0/data
    • mysql/enable_64bit
      • Flag to select 32bit or 64bit , Default : false
  • First time installations
    • Creates system tables (mysql_install_db.sh )‏
starting mysql on open solaris
Starting MySQL on Open Solaris
  • Older Open Solaris Build (Build 76- Build-87)‏
    • 32Bit MySQL integrated
    • Create mysql user
    • Enable MySQL SMF service
  • Latest Open Solaris Build (Build 87 onwards)‏
      • 32Bit and 64bit MySQL integrated
      • Default mode : 32bit service
      • For starting 64bit
        • Set enable_64bit == true
optimized mysql on solaris 10
Optimized MySQL on Solaris 10
  • CoolStack
    • SAMP stack + more
  • Optimized MySQL download
    • Standalone package
    • SAMP stack component
  • Available at Sun Download center:
    • http://cooltools.sunsource.net/coolstack
  • Version MySQL 5.0.45
  • Similar optimizations as in Open Solaris
solaris cluster overview
Solaris Cluster Overview
  • Provides general purpose HA platform

Availability is our customers\'

most critical requirement

Sun Cluster VOC Survey

Fifty percent of enterprises that lack a

recovery plan go out of business within

one year of a significant disaster

Gartner Group

solaris cluster hardware components
Solaris Cluster : Hardware Components
  • Servers with local storage
    • Can have up to 16 nodes
  • Shared storage
    • Tolerates single-node failures
    • Centralizes configuration files
  • Cluster interconnect
    • At least two redundant networks
  • Public network interfaces
    • Spreads outbound packets
solaris cluster algorithms
Solaris Cluster Algorithms
  • Cluster membership monitor
    • Ensures data integrity
    • Determines cluster membership
  • Cluster configuration repository
    • Global repository
    • Ensures consistent view
  • Disk Fencing
    • Fences off non-cluster nodes
    • Prevents Partition
  • Quorum
    • Uses a majority voting schema
mysql high availability data service
MySQL High Availability Data Service

DB

Node 3

Node 2

Node 1

Node 4

  • HA-MySQL is a failover data service
mysql high availability data service1
MySQL High Availability Data Service
  • Supported configurations
    • Standalone MySQL server
    • MySQL replication server
      • Single/Multiple MySQL instances in master configuration
      • Single/Multiple MySQL instances in slave configuration
  • Solaris containers support
    • Global zone
    • Non-global failover zone
    • Non-global zone
ha mysql service deployment
HA-MySQL Service Deployment

MySQL

MySQL

Stor

Host

Stor

Host

Node1

Node2

Node2:Zone2

Node1:Zone1

mysql solaris cluster benefits
MySQL-Solaris Cluster Benefits
  • Enhanced end-to-end infrastructure availability
  • Continuous MySQL Availability
    • Automatic failover if master node fails
  • Low cost solution
    • Software is free and open sourced
  • Efficient Resource Utilization
    • Multiple applications can be consolidated
  • Ease of operations
    • SC enables clustered systems to be managed as if they were on a single system
additional information
Additional information
  • Step by step deployment guide
    • http://docs.sun.com/app/docs/doc/819-3059
  • Failover study of HA-MySQL
    • http://blogs.sun.com/krishs/date/200804
  • Solaris Cluster
    • http://www.sun.com/software/solaris/cluster/index.xml
    • http://opensolaris.org/os/community/ha-clusters/
solaris containers
Solaris Containers
  • Containers : Zones + Resource Management
    • Zones: isolated virtual application environments
    • Resource management – resource control (CPU, Memory)‏
  • Achieving Consolidation Goals
    • Reduce Hardware
      • Combine low utilization systems
    • Isolate applications from faults
    • Maintain Service Levels
      • Fine tune response times
mysql consolidation study
MySQL Consolidation Study
  • System Configuration
    • Sun Fire X4100 (4 CPU, 8 GB Memory)‏
  • Local container configuration ( 1 CPU , 1 GB Memory
  • Sysbench Read-only Sysbench read-write
dtrace
DTrace
  • Use DTrace with MySQL to drill down Monitoring MySQL Performance
  • Examples & Solutions
  • Easy Steps To add DTrace probes into MySQL core server and storage Engines
  • Easy Steps to display MySQL DTrace probes into Chime visualization Tool for DTrace
why dtrace
Why DTrace
  • Solaris 10 Dynamic Tracing Facility to provide comprehensive view of operating system and application behaviour
  • DTrace to examine particular system areas: disk I/O, CPU, Memory
  • Process Tracing and Debugging
    • USDT(User-level statically defined tracing) place custom probes in application code
    • Add USDT into MySQL source to monitor MySQL and gather the useful data missing by the current MySQL monitor tools:
dtrace monitor i os
DTrace: Monitor I/Os
  • Exam I/O wait time by filename and mysqld(Available at DTraceToolkit)‏
    • #!/usr/sbin/dtrace –s
    • #pragma D option quiet
    • io:::wait-start
    • / execname == “mysqld” /
    • { self->start = timestamp; }
    • io:::wait-done
    • / execname == “mysqld” && self->start /
    • { this->elapsed = timestamp - self->start;
    • @files[pid,args[1]->dev_pathname, args[2]->fi_pathname] = sum(this->elapsed);
    • self->start = 0;
    • }
    • profile:::tick-5s
    • { printf(“-------------------------------------------------\n”);
    • printf(“%6s %8s %20s %50s\n”, “PID”, “TIME”, “DEVICE”, “FILE”);
    • printa(“%6d %@8d %20s %8s \n”, @files);
    • printf (“------------------------------------------------\n”); }
    • #./mysqliowait.d
    • ---------------------------------------------------
    • PID TIME DEVICE FILE
    • 113 234 /dev/dsk/c0t2d0s0 /usr/local/mysql/data/ibdata1
dtrace monitor cpu
DTrace: Monitor CPU
  • classic performance problem
    • #!/usr/sbin/dtrace -s
    • #pragma D option quiet
    • syscall:::entry
    • {
    • self->ts=vtimestamp;
    • }
    • syscall:::return
    • /self->ts/
    • {
    • @a[execname, probefunc] = count();
    • @b[execname, probefunc] = sum (vtimestamp - self->ts);
    • self->ts=0;
    • }
    • END
    • {
    • printf("%-16s %-16s %-8s\n","EXEC","SYSCALL","COUNT");
    • printa("%-16s %-16s %[email protected]\n",@a);
    • printf("%-16s %-16s %-8s\n","EXEC","SYSCALL","TIME");
    • printa("%-16s %-16s %[email protected]\n",@b);
    • }
slide30
# ./syscall.d

EXEC SYSCALL COUNT

devfsadm lwp_park 1

dtrace fstat 1

...

mysqld read 106542

mysqld gtime 109613

mysqldpread1181669

---------------------------------------------------

EXEC SYSCALL TIME

dtrace lwp_sigmask 218

pkill getpid 302

...

mysqld read 259284183

mysqld write 267556239

mysqldpread4650457224

slide31
Agrregated user stack backtrace to understand of the nature of pread() in MySQL source code – useful for mysql developers

# dtrace -n \'syscall::pread:entry / execname == "mysqld" / { @[ustack()]=count() }

dtrace: description \'syscall::pread:entry \' matched 1 probe

...

libc.so.1`_pread+0xa

mysqld`my_pread+0x54

mysqld`_mi_read_static_record+0x67

mysqld`mi_rnext+0x1fe

...

mysqld`handle_one_connection+0x855

libc.so.1`_thr_setup+0x67

1564811

....

Replace high cost pread with

“--myisam_use_mmap=1”- useful for mysql DBA

  • A 94% performance improvement !
dtrace memory analysis
Dtrace: Memory Analysis
  • Check which process causes anonymous page in
    • # dtrace -n anonpgin \'{@[execname] = count()}\'
    • dtrace: description anonpgin matched 1 probe
    • sshd 2
    • vmstat 23
    • mysqld 673
    • Use Dtrace to measure waiting for paging in
    • # ./ whospaging.d – available at Solaris Internals(http://www.solarisinternals.com/si/dtrace/)‏
    • Who\'s on cpu (milliseconds):
    • sshd 1
    • vmstat 3
    • mysqld 120
    • sched 43210
    • Who\'s waiting for pagin (milliseconds):
    • mysqld 239082
dtrace probes in mysql
Dtrace Probes In MySQL
  • Provide deep view of internal MySQL core server and storage engines\' operation & behaviour
    • Database information
    • Query execution latency
    • Index & table scan cost
    • Wait events inside MyISAM & Innodb
    • Deadlock information
    • Query cache hit/miss
    • And many more...
  • Speed resolution of performance bottlenecks with in database design and MySQL server configurations
  • Negligible performance overhead
  • Easy steps to create & insert your own Dtrace probes into MySQL
  • MySQL DTrace GUI Monitor Tool - Chime
query execution time
Query execution Time
  • Enable Slow query log with “–log-slow-queries” requires re-start MySQL server
  • SQL statements with query execution time longer than “long_query_time” second in the log file
  • SQL statements generating most loads on the application may not in slow query log
  • Replication query statements are not available in slow query log
  • Time spending by the query optimizer to generate query plan is not available in slow query log
  • Using DTrace can get mising query execution information online
insert dtrace probes into mysql
Insert DTrace Probes Into MySQL
  • Step 1: Figure out what probes are needed to insert into the source code
  • Step 2: Define MySQL Provider and probes
    • # cat mysql_dtrace.d
    • provider mysql
    • {
    • probe query__execute__start(void *, char *, char *, const char *, char *);
    • probe query__execute__finish(void *, char *, char *, const char *, char *,int);
    • }
    • Two Probes defined in the mysql provider
    • Note to use two underscore(__) translated to hypen automatically
slide36
Step 3: Define a header file “mysql_dtrace.h” with definitions for probes

dtrace -h -s mysql_dtrace.d

#ifndef _MYSQL_H

#define _MYSQL_H

#define DTRACE_QUERY_EXECUTE_START(arg0, arg1, arg2, arg3, arg4) \

__dtrace_mysql___query__execute__start(arg0, arg1, arg2, arg3, arg4)‏

#define DTRACE_QUERY_EXECUTE_START_ENABLED() \

__dtraceenabled_mysql___query__execute__start()‏

extern void __dtrace_mysql___query__execute__start(void *, char *, char *, char *, char *);

extern int __dtraceenabled_mysql___query__execute__start(void);

#endif

slide37
Step 4: Insert the probes into source code

#include <mysql_dtrace.h>

...

bool mysql_execute_command(THD *thd)‏

{

DTRACE_QUERY_EXECUTE_START((void *)thd, thd->db,

thd->security_ctx->user, (char *)thd->security_ctx->host_or_ip,thd->query);

...

DTRACE_QUERY_EXECUTE_FINISH((void*)thd, thd->db,

thd->security_ctx->user, (char *)thd->security_ctx->host_or_ip,

thd->query, res ==0 ? 0: -1);

go to end;

...

}

slide38
Step 5: Build MySQL with DTrace
  • In the Makefile.in, compile 64-bit MySQL with Dtrace

mysqld_OBJECTS = $(am_mysqld_OBJECTS) mysql_dtrace.$(OBJEXT)‏

mysql_dtrace.o:$(top_srcdir)/include/mysql_dtrace.d $(am_mysqld_OBJECTS)‏

dtrace -G 64 -s $(top_srcdir)/include/mysql_dtrace.d $(am_mysqld_OBJECTS)

  • Inserting DTrace probes comleted, DTrace probes are ready to use!
slide39
Step 6: Use inserted DTrace probes to measure query execution time with other database information

#!/usr/sbin/dtrace -s

mysql*:::query-execute-start

{ self->start = timestamp; }

mysql*:::query-execute-finish

/self->start/

{ this->query = copyinstr(arg4); }

mysql*:::query-execute-finish

/self->start/

{ this->elapsed = (timestamp - self->start) / 1000000;

this->who = strjoin(copyinstr(arg2), strjoin("@", copyinstr(arg3)));

printf(" %-16.16s %-18.18s %5d %3d %-32.32s\n", arg1 ? copyinstr(arg1)‏

: ".", this->who, this->elapsed, (int)arg5, this->query); self->start = 0;

}

slide40
# ./mysqld_qestat.d

DATABASE [email protected] ms RET QUERY

sbtest [email protected] 0 0 show tables

sbtest [email protected] 0 0 show databases

sbtest [email protected] 178 0 select * from sbtest

  • Use the same steps to insert Dtrace probes to <source_tree>/sql/sql_select.cc at the start and end of choose_plan() function to measure the time spent in query optimization
  • optimizer_prune_level=1 reduce query compilation time
  • Reduce optimizer_search_depth or optimizer_search_depth=0
index table scan cost
Index & Table scan cost
  • Identify the places in MySQL source to handle scanning index, and table
    • Index-scan functions: index_next, index_next_same, index_prev, index_first, index_last
    • Table-scan functions: rnd_init, rnd_end, rnd_next, rnd_pos
    • Insert DTrace Probes at the start and before return from the functions can measure the time spending on scanning table or index.

mysql*:::innodb-index-next-start

{ @indexnext[args[0]] = count();

self->inext = timestamp; }

mysql*:::innodb-index-next-finish

/self->inext/

{ @indexnexttime[args[0]] = sum(timestamp - self->inext);

self->inext = 0; }

  • Expensive index-scan/table-scan report from Dtrace requires to optimize schema accordingly
buffer wait in innodb
Buffer wait in Innodb
  • Innodb buffer wait is common in I/O-bound MySQL system while reading
    • page synchronous from disk
  • Insert Dtrace probes at: innobase/buf/buf0rea.c,
  • ulint buf_read_page( ulint space, ulint offset)‏
  • { ...
  • DTRACE_INNODB_BUFFER_WAIT_START();
  • /* We do the i/o in the synchronous aio mode to save thread
  • switches: hence TRUE */
  • count2 = buf_read_page_low(&err, TRUE, BUF_READ_ANY_PAGE, space,
  • tablespace_version, offset);
  • DTRACE_INNODB_BUFFER_WAIT_FINISH();
  • ...
  • }
  • Increase innodb_buffer_pool size
  • Tune SQL to access rows with fewer block reads(i.e. By adding indexes)‏
query cache probes
Query cache probes
  • Use DTrace to measure query cache hit and query cache miss to determine how well the query cache is performing
    • > Insert DTrace Probes at: sql/sql_cache.cc function: send_result_to_client
    • > DTrace Test script to report query cache hit and miss counts by query string, and totals
    • mysql*:::query-cache-hit,
    • mysql*:::query-cache-miss
    • { this->query = copyinstr(arg4); }

mysql*:::query-cache-hit

{ @elapsed[this->query, "hit"] = count();

    • hits++; }
    • mysql*:::query-cache-miss
    • { @elapsed[this->query, "miss"] = count();
    • misses++; }
slide44
# ./mysqld_qchit.d

Tracing... Hit Ctrl-C to end.

^C

QUERY RESULT COUNT

select * from months miss 1

select * from months where num > 3 hit 1

select * from months where num > 3 and num < 9 miss 1

show databases miss 1

show tables miss 1

select * from months hit 9

Hits : 10

Misses : 4

Hit Rate : 71%

  • Tuning “query_cache_size” variable according to the hit/miss rate
dtrace performance impact
DTrace Performance Impact
  • Inserting DTrace Probes into MySQL source code are useful for MySQL DBA, MySQL & application developers. The performance impact of adding DTrace probes is critical for enterprise environment.
  • Cost of inserting USDT probe can be basically negligible:
    • Each probe inserted into the source code can be enabled by adding the code like:
    • if (PROVIDER_PROBE_ENABLED()‏
    • {
    • PROVIDER_PROBE(arg0,...);
    • }
dtrace probes in mysql 6 0
DTrace Probes In MySQL 6.0
    • probe insert_row_start();probe insert_row_end();probe filesort_start();probe filesort_end();probe delete_start();probe delete_end();probe select_start()probe select_end();probe update_start();probe update_end();
  • compile with “--enable-dtrace” configure option to use the Dtrace probes
integrate with chime tool
Integrate with Chime Tool
  • Chime is graphical tool for visualizing DTrace aggregations. It
  • provides alternative CLI-based tool output with more visually
  • apprealing and more useful to display data over time
  • Available to download: http://www.opensolaris.org/os/project/dtrace-chime. One-step installation:
  • > Run pkgadd -d osol0chime-<arch>-1.4.pkg
  • chime requires Solaris Nevada build 35 or later
  • > Run local: /opt/OSOL0chime/bin/chime
  • > Run remotely: /opt/OSOL0chime/bin/chime <hostname>
  • chime provides wizard to automatically generate new display for DTrace script
slide49
Resources

> http://www.opensolaris.org/os/community/dtrace

- OpenSolaris Community: Dtrace

>http://developers.sun.com/solaris/articles/solaris_perftools.html

- Solaris Performance and Tools

> http://docs.sun.com/app/docs/doc/817-6223/6mlkidlms?a=view

- Statically Defined Tracing for User Applications chapter of DTrace

Manual

>http://www.brendangregg.com

- DTrace toolkits

> http://www.solarisinternals.com/wiki/index.php/DTrace_Topics_Databases

- DTrace Topics Databases

    • Acknowledgements

Brandan Gregg – Sun Microsystems Engineer in Advanced Products Group

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