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Genitourinary Assessment. Competencies. To Describe information to be obtained during a genitourinary assessment To identify techniques to use during a genitourinary assessment To perform a genitourinary assessment on a patient To discuss gerontological variations. Health History.

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Genitourinary Assessment

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Genitourinary assessment

Genitourinary Assessment



  • To Describe information to be obtained during a genitourinary assessment

  • To identify techniques to use during a genitourinary assessment

  • To perform a genitourinary assessment on a patient

  • To discuss gerontological variations

Health history

Health History

  • Age: variations associated with age, i.e STD’s for youth, elimination problems for adults

  • Family history

  • Social history: sexual practices, substance use

Subjective data

Subjective Data

  • Does the client have difficulty urinating? Is there burning?

  • Does the flow start and stop?

  • What is the frequency of urination?

  • Do they experience incontinence or dribbling of urine?

  • Do they have difficulty controlling their urine?



  • For female clients: did the urinary pattern change after childbirth

  • Do they have spontaneous urination with coughing, sneezing etc

  • For male clients do they have discharge from the urethral meatus?



  • Common chief complaints: urinary frequency, pain on urination

  • Colour, odour and amount of urine

Factors affecting elimination

Factors affecting elimination

  • Aging: kidney functioning, bladder tone & contractility, neuromuscular problems.

  • Food & fluids – caffeine (diuretic effect), foods high in water &/or sodium content.

  • Psychological variables – stress, cultural issues, embarrassment

Genitourinary assessment

  • Activity and muscle tone

  • Pathological conditions – urinary tract abnormalities, UTI, diabetes, kidney stones

  • Medications – diuretics, anticoagulants

Normal elimination

Normal Elimination

  • Urine should be straw coloured (pale yellow), with no offensive odour or sediment

  • Our total blood volume passes through the kidneys about every half hour filtering waste

  • Bladder is smooth muscle sac with 3 layers

Genitourinary assessment

  • Stretch receptors in the bladder signal the need to void

  • Usually about 200-300 mLs of urine in bladder will activate this process but can distend to hold 3000-4000 mLs of urine

  • Typically urinate about every 3-4 hours

Terms associated with elimination

Terms associated with Elimination

  • Anuria: no urine

  • Dysuria: difficulty in voiding

  • Frequency: increased incidence of voiding

  • Glycosuria: glucose in urine

  • Nocturia: frequency during the night

  • Urgency: strong desire to void



  • Located high and deep under the diaphragm

  • Best to assess for kidney at the costovertebral angle

  • Primary function of the kidneys is filtration and elimination of metabolic wastes



  • Have client empty their bladder and lie on the bed

  • Would normally inspect the reproductive organs at this time

  • Looking for any noticeable deviations from normal

  • Most often covered as part of reproductive exam



  • Assessing for any visible signs of infection from the urinary meatus

  • With men must assess whether or not the person has been circumcised



  • To palpate for urethral discharge gently squeeze the glans between the index finger and the thumb

  • The urinary meatus is normally free from discharge

  • Any discharge should be cultured

Prostate gland

Prostate Gland

  • An important part of the exam for men

  • The prostate is palpated on the anterior surface of the rectum

  • An enlarged prostate my indicate benign prostatic hypertrophy, a condition that affects men as they age and may cause urinary difficulties

Lifespan variations

Lifespan Variations

  • Bladder capacity decreases to 250 mL owing to periurethral atrophy

  • May have 1-2 periods of nocturia

  • Increasing chance of men developing prostate disease that may impact on urinary functioning

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