=. =. CHEMISTRY 2000. aspirin. Topic #4: Organic Chemistry Spring 2010 Dr. Susan Lait. Reactions in Organic Chemistry.
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Topic #4: Organic Chemistry
Dr. Susan Lait
*The exceptions to this rule are arenes like benzene where the electrons
are delocalized (as we saw in the MO portion of CHEM 2000).
* A leaving group is part of an organic compound that would be a stable molecule
or ion on its own if it took a pair of electrons. An example is -Cl (becomes Cl-).
OH- (from R-OH) is not a very good leaving group, but OH2 (from R-OH2+) is…
* bonding electrons can also be nucleophilic.
* To show movement of single electrons, chemists use half-arrows.
Note that it is the bromide ion that leaves in this reaction. Why doesn’t hydrogen leave instead?
This carbocation gets some extra resonance stabilization from the halogen atom that was just attached to the molecule – so much so that the two carbon atoms and the halogen are locked in a ring. Because of the positive charge on the halogen atom, this ion is called either a “chloronium ion” or a “bromonium ion”. Essentially, it’s a special kind of carbocation.
The product has two halogen atoms attached to the carbons that used to be double bonded.