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Animal protection legislation 動物保護立法. Module 27 模組 27. The basis of legislation 立法基礎. 從法律可以看出社會的倫理。 歐盟國家之動物法律是按照動物別來立法。計有:食用動物、伴侶動物、實驗動物等。歐盟的細部指令,又再進一步管理各種經濟動物,在農場、運輸及在屠宰場予以保護。又有法條保護實驗動物,以及特殊規定禁止為了皮草使用捕獸夾捕獸,禁止進口鯨魚和鯨類製品。 然而並非所有的人對動物之定位都一樣,而立法過程是正反辯論之結果。. Definitions 定義.

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Animal protection legislation 動物保護立法

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Animal protection legislation

Animal protection legislation 動物保護立法

Module 27

模組27


The basis of legislation

The basis of legislation立法基礎

  • 從法律可以看出社會的倫理。

  • 歐盟國家之動物法律是按照動物別來立法。計有:食用動物、伴侶動物、實驗動物等。歐盟的細部指令,又再進一步管理各種經濟動物,在農場、運輸及在屠宰場予以保護。又有法條保護實驗動物,以及特殊規定禁止為了皮草使用捕獸夾捕獸,禁止進口鯨魚和鯨類製品。

  • 然而並非所有的人對動物之定位都一樣,而立法過程是正反辯論之結果。


Definitions

Definitions定義

Law(法律): a rule established in the community by authority or custom; a body of such rules法律:是一個社群靠著權威跟傳統建立的規則;一個具有這種規則的主體

Legislation(立法): law making; the body of law立法:建立法律,法律的主體

Statute(成文法): a specific law passed by a legislative body 成文法: 一個經過立法單位通過的法律

Offence(犯法): an act contrary to the law反對法律的行為

Defendant(被告): a person accused of an offence in a court of law被告: 一人在法庭被控告犯法

Plaintiff(原告): a person or body bringing an action in a court of law 原告: 一個人或主體在法庭提出告訴


A model law

A model law法律規格

  • Identify aspects of the legal system within which it must work 從立法系統之各層面去確認法律的規格。例如歐盟之法規(directive)是由歐盟各會員國執行,但亦同時屬於歐盟聯邦之法律系統。聯邦和各國政府共同決定立法責任的歸屬,由此可知法律系統的效果。

  • Understand the different types of legislation瞭解不同種的立法形式。

  • Identify characteristics of different types of statute 辨別不同成文法的特色。


Legal system characteristics

Legal system characteristics法律系統特性

  • Courts use both Statute and Case (Common) Law法院同時使用成文法與判例(普通)法

    • E.g. UK, Commonwealth & former Commonwealth countries例如英國, 英國聯邦

  • Romano-Germanic Law, using solely Statute Law大陸(日耳曼)法系, 僅使用成文法

    • E.g., Continental European countries例如歐洲大陸的國家

  • Theocratic Law, derived purely from religious texts神權法條的取得來自信仰

    • E.g. Saudi Arabia and Iran如阿拉伯、伊朗。


Legal system basic principles 1

Legal system - basic principles法律系統之基本原則 (1)

  • Status of the accused – presumptionof innocence or guilt 控告的狀況–無罪或有罪之假設(定罪之原則)

  • 在英屬殖民地的國家裡,被告在被證明有罪之前,都可能被視為無罪;

  • 而日耳曼法系之原則則是,被告在被證明無罪之前,都可能被視為有罪。


Legal system basic principles 2

Legal system - basic principles法律系統之基本原則 (2)

  • 在刑法中之條文,其證明原則是「超越合理的懷疑beyond reasonable doubt」;

  • 在民法,則採「可能性的平衡on the balance of probability」的證明方式。

  • 何種證據是可接受的,從第三者而來的證據是可接受的嗎?

  • 何種身分的人(如從小孩或婦女)提供的證據方可接受?法律上幾歲才算是成年?


Interpreting statute the basis of statute

Interpreting statute: the basis of statute條文解釋:法條基礎

  • Prohibitivee.g. The Animal Welfare Act 1966, USA - what you must not do 禁止性的條文,如美國之動物福利法(1966) -什麼是你不能做的。

  • Prescriptive e.g. The Laying Hens Directive 99/74/EC, EU - what you must provide 規定性的,如歐盟蛋雞指令(99/74/EC, EU) -你應提供什麼給動物。

  • Cost/Benefite.g. The Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986, UK - is the likely benefit justified by the harm caused 成本/利益性的,如美國之科學程序法(1986) –因造成之傷害反過來證成可能的利益


Interpreting statute identify the offence 1

Interpreting statute: identify the offence條文解釋(1):犯罪之認定

  • The Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act 1960, India - “to cause unnecessary pain or suffering” 印度之動物防虐法:導致不必要的痛苦或傷害

  • Code of Federal Regulations Chapter III, Part 313, USA - “cause inhumane treatment”美國聯邦法第三章313款:導致不人道對待

  • Council Directive 91/630/EEC – the “Pigs Directive” - “Member States shall ensure that conditions for rearing pigs comply with….” 歐盟指令91/630/EEC:會員國要確保該國之養豬業者需遵守…


Interpreting statute to which animals is it applicable and where 2

Interpreting statute: to which animals is it applicable and where?條文解釋(2):[哪些動物]與[哪裡之動物]

  • [哪些動物][哪裡之動物] The Agriculture (Miscellaneous Provisions) Act 1968, UK, applies only to farmed livestock on agricultural land 英國1968農業(其他規範)法案,只施行在農場的家畜

  • [哪些動物] The Animal Welfare Act 1966, USA, does not apply to farmed animals 美國1966動福法:不實施在農場動物

  • [哪些動物] The ‘Laying Hens Directive’, 99/74/EC, EU, does not apply to: 歐盟蛋雞指令不實施於:(1)establishments with<350 hens 低於350隻之規模;(2)breeding laying hens 種用母雞


Interpreting statute the nature of the offence 3

Interpreting statute: the nature of the offence條文解釋(3):犯罪的性質

  • Defendant’s mental state? 被告的心理狀態?

    • Subjective mens rea 主觀的犯罪意圖

    • Objective mens rea 客觀的犯罪意圖

  • Strict liability 嚴格義務

    • Mental state is not considered

    • 心理狀態不列入考慮

    • (續)


The nature of the offence subjective mens rea 1

The nature of the offence- Subjective mens rea犯罪的性質(1):主觀意圖

  • The UK’s 1996 Wild Mammals Protection Act英國1996年野生哺乳動物保護法案:

    • ‘If any person mutilates, kicks, ….any wild animal WITH INTENT to inflict unnecessary suffering’假如任何人意圖殺傷、踢任何野生動物導致不必要的受苦。

  • The offence is tested in terms of the intention of the defendant此罪行將[以被告的意圖定罪]。


The nature of the offence objective mens rea 2

The nature of the offence- Objective mens rea犯罪的性質(2):客觀意圖

  • 以社會行為準則的比較來決定他是否犯罪(whetheran offence has been committed)

  • The Animal Welfare Act 2006 (England and Wales).英格蘭和威爾斯的新動物福利法案(2006)

    • An offence to cause ‘unnecessary suffering’ 導致沒有必要痛苦的犯罪

  • The offence is tested against 5 points including定罪準則五點包括:Whether the conduct was that “… of a reasonably competent and humane person” 此行為是否是 [一個具有理性的人,在任何情況下都不會做的。]


The nature of the offence objective mens rea 3

The nature of the offence- Objective mens rea犯罪的性質(3):客觀意圖

  • Was the conduct for a legitimate purpose?如果行為有合法之目的?

    • To benefit the animal?對動物有利?

    • To protect a person, property or another animal?保護個人、財產或另一個動物?

  • Was the suffering proportionate to the purpose of the conduct concerned? 動物所受的苦楚是否與此人的行為之目的一致?


The nature of the offence objective mens rea 4

The nature of the offence- Objective mens rea犯罪的性質(4):客觀意圖

  • Additional legal tests of “unnecessary suffering” under the Animal Welfare Act 2006 (England and Wales).英格蘭和威爾斯的新動物福利法案(2006)指出的增加合法試驗的不必要痛苦

    • Could the suffering have been avoided or reduced?這個痛苦是否是可以避免或是減低的

    • Was the conduct which caused the suffering in compliance with any relevant enactment?這個行為所導致的痛苦是否遵守了相關的法令


The nature of the offence strict liability 5

The nature of the offence- Strict liability犯罪的性質(5):嚴格的義務

  • The UK’s 1997 Welfare of Animals (Transport) Order英國1997動物運輸規定

    • An offence to transport an animal “in a way which causes, or is likely to cause, injury or unnecessary suffering”運送途中發生或可能導致不必要的傷害或痛苦之罪

    • The views of the defendant and society are irrelevant被告和社會的觀點不一致

    • If an animal is injured an offence has been committed動物受傷則可確定犯罪


Interpreting legislation the status of the legislation 1

Interpreting legislation: the status of the legislation法律之解釋(1):法律狀況

  • Primary legislation基本立法

    • enacted through repeated debates in the National Legislative body經過反覆的辯論制訂國家立法主體

  • Secondary legislation次要立法

    • enacted by a Department of Government with authority from primary legislation由政府機關依照基本立法制訂

  • Guidance documents指令文件

  • Codes of Practice法規執行


Interpreting legislation relevance of status to effective protection 2

Interpreting legislation: relevance of status to effective protection法律之解釋(2):有效保護之相關狀況

  • Primary legislation 被列入基本立法

    • Expensive and time-consuming to amend in the light of new scientific evidence and changing public attitudes to welfare當科學新知與公眾態度改變時需要耗時耗資修訂

  • Secondary legislation 被列入次要立法

    • Readily amended可以節省時間立即修正


Interpreting legislation relevance of status to effective protection 3

Interpreting legislation: relevance of status to effective protection法律之解釋(3):有效保護之相關狀況

  • Guidance documents and Codes of Practice指令文件和法規習慣

    • May be used in the interpretation of statute but failure to comply does not constitute an offence可用在法條的解釋但不遵守並不構成犯罪


Interpreting legislation what powers are authorised 4

Interpreting legislation: what powers are authorised?法律之解釋(4):有效保護

  • Use of force 權力(主管機關)

  • Access 進入他人產權

  • Stop and search 停止和尋找

  • Seizure 扣押

  • Detention 拘留

  • Arrest 逮捕


Interpreting legislation what penalties are available on conviction 5

Interpreting legislation: what penalties are available on conviction?法律解釋(5):定罪時如何罰?

  • Monetary fine - what level? 罰款-罰多少?

  • Imprisonment監禁

  • Prohibition of ownership 禁止所有權

  • Prohibition of care禁止照護

  • Prohibition of production禁止生產


Interpreting legislation the legal status of animals 6

Interpreting legislation:The legal status of animals? 法律解釋(6):動物之法律狀況

  • Property in all countries所有國家視為 [物 / 財產]

  • EU Protocol on Protection & Welfare of Animals歐盟的動物保護和福利協議

    • Recognises animals as ‘sentient beings’承認動物為”有感知存在體”

    • Requires Member States to “pay full regard to the welfare requirements of animals” when formulating and implementing legislation要求會員國在制定及實行法律時盡全力關切動物福利之需求

    • No requirement to take account of economics不體諒經濟因素

    • Enforceable in law可實施之法律


Animal protection legislation

歐洲國家規定,豬隻運輸的最高合法乘載密度是每100公斤0.42平方公尺。The reality - pigs packed into lorries at less than 0.35 m2 per 100kg 事實是:豬被塞入貨車裝在每100公斤不到0.35平方公尺的擁擠狀況


29 14 14 24 24

最高29小時之運輸規定:運輸14小時(包括上下車)後休息一小時,然後繼續14小時之運輸。倘若運輸時數超過24小時,牛隻必須要在獲認可的驛站休息與供應食物及飲水,在休息24小後方可繼續運輸。事實是:很多國家都不理,造成疲憊的牛

Reproduced with permission of CBS Press


Reasons why animal welfare legislation may not be effective 1

Reasons why animal welfare legislation may not be effective動物福利法律可能無效的理由 - 1

  • Legal status of animals as property法律視動物為財產(沒有生命的物品)

  • Prohibitive legislation not indicating the provisions expected禁止性的法律未指出應該做到的指標

  • Dependence on the status and circumstances of the animal 保護動物要看動物的地位和情況而定


Reasons why animal welfare legislation may not be effective 11

Reasons why animal welfare legislation may not be effective動物福利法律可能無效的理由- 1

  • 寵物兔地位高待遇佳

實驗兔可憐


Reasons why animal welfare legislation may not be effective 2

Reasons why animal welfare legislation may not be effective動物福利法律可能無效的理由 - 2

  • Compromises in wording of text due to single interest lobbying during consultation

    • For example, "a lying area which is clean….., and eitherhas well-maintained dry beddingoris well drained"由於單方面之利益遊說,使法律用語妥協 – 例如:躺的地方要乾淨…,且床要維持乾燥抑或排水良好


Reasons why animal welfare legislation may not be effective 3

Reasons why animal welfare legislation may not be effective動物福利法律可能無效的理由 - 3

  • Reinterpretation of terms by industry bodies企業團體曲解法律條文:

    • 在丹麥有一條法律,當被重新解釋後立即扭轉了當初立法的本意。顯然,法律原本是打算給母豬實心的躺臥地。豬商藉著重新定義,將”實心”解釋成為包括”開口”,創造法律漏洞讓老舊的封條狀地版豬舍可以繼續使用。

  • Danish ‘Enlandsgriseproduktion’ Scheme


Reasons why animal welfare legislation may not be effective 4

Reasons why animal welfare legislation may not be effective動物福利法律可能無效的理由 - 4

  • Responsibility for enforcement being spread between government departments, so reducing co-ordination執法責任分散至很多政府部門,減少力量

  • Poor statute enacted in haste in response to political pressure, e.g.匆忙的立法只為了回應政治壓力The Dangerous Dogs Act, UK (1991)如英國之危險狗法律


Reasons why animal welfare legislation may not be effective 5

Reasons why animal welfare legislation may not be effective動物福利法律可能無效的理由 - 5

  • The subjective nature of the offences causing different interpretations between courts犯法之主觀性質造成各法院不同之解釋

  • 如:農村出身與都市出身的陪審團與法官對例行豬隻的閹割看法不同


Reasons why animal welfare legislation may not be effective 6

Reasons why animal welfare legislation may not be effective動物福利法律可能無效的理由-6

  • Poor enforcement due to執法不力之無效之可能原因:

    • Limited resources 動保員不足資源有限

    • Variable enforcement 畜牧生產與動物福利衝突

    • Enforcement body sharing interests with those policed執法主體與警方分享利益

    • Limits to powers of access, stop and search, seizure and detention限制公權力進入、停止和尋找,逮捕和拘留的權力

    • Commercial confidentiality商業機密


Reasons why animal welfare legislation may not be effective 7

Reasons why animal welfare legislation may not be effective動物福利法律可能無效的理由-7

  • Statute has no provision for:法律沒有提供

    • Power of seizure - defendants keep ownership of animals during proceedings扣押的權力:被告在審判過程中仍有動物之所有權

    • Prohibition of ownership - convicted party permitted to retain animals所有權的禁止:已經被判有罪者仍准許保留動物

    • Prohibition of care - ownership may be transferred but care is still by convicted party照護權的禁止:所有權可能轉移但已經被判有罪者仍有照護權


Reasons why animal welfare legislation may not be effective 8

Reasons why animal welfare legislation may not be effective動物福利法律可能無效的理由- 8

  • May have to accommodate可能受制於:

    • Domestic, economic and political pressures國內政治經濟壓力

    • International agreements on trade

    • 國際貿易約定

    • Other, conflicting legislation

  • 其他法律不協調

  • See Module 28看模組8


Summary a model welfare law

Summary: A model welfare law摘要:一個模範法律

  • A single Statute, single Department 單一法律,單一主管機關

  • Strict liability offences 嚴格義務之犯罪

  • Prescriptive 遠見

  • Comprehensive and coherent 整合協調

  • Powers of stop, search, seizure, detention制止,尋找,扣押,拘留的權力

  • Penalties of prohibition of ownership and care禁止所有權和照顧的處罰

  • National enforcement body國家級執法主體

  • In a form most readily enacted and amended立即實行和修正之精神


Animal protection legislation 2 enforcement and political pressure 2

Animal protection legislation (2):Enforcement and political pressure 動物保護立法 2:執法與政治壓力

Module 28

模組28


This module will enable you to

This module will enable you to此模組將能夠使你

Identify obstacles to the effective enforcement of statute辨別有效執法的阻礙

Describe methods by which some of these obstacles may be overcome敘述克服這些阻礙的可行方法

Outline ways in which pressure might be applied to governments to improve列舉如何促使政府加強執法的決心enforcement

Understand the role of an expert witness專家證人的角色


Practical enforcement of statute

Click here for more details about taking an animal welfare case to court

按此得到更多細節,得到動物福利例子供給法院

Practical enforcement of statute實用的執法


But sometimes statute can t be enforced

But sometimes statute can’t be enforced但有時候無法執法


Why some statute may not be enforced

Why some statute may not be enforced為何有些法令可能不被實行

  • International agreements on trade (World Trade Organisation)世界貿易協定(世貿組織)

  • Clashes with other legislation其他法令衝突

  • Domestic economic and political pressures境內政治與經濟壓力


Wto rules

WTO rules世界貿易協定

  • Encourage free trade by reducing import tariffs or export subsidies *鼓勵自由貿易藉著使進口設立關稅或出口予以補貼為非法

  • Discrimination between goods on the grounds of production methods is not generally permitted – although there is discussion on whether labelling is allowed商品立基於不同的生產方式的歧視是不被容許的-不論在價格上或貼標籤上

* Agreement on Agriculture – Fixed, progressive reduction in existing subsidies農業協定:現存的補貼以固定的比例逐漸縮減


Wto rules1

WTO rules世界貿易協定

  • Currently no exceptions for animal welfare目前沒有為了動物福利之例外

  • Render unilateral legislation or rigorous enforcement to improve animal welfare, which increases production costs, economically non-viable 單方面的實施立法或嚴厲促進動物福利,導致增加生產成本,經濟無力


Wto rules current exceptions

WTO rules: Current exceptions世界貿易協定:目前之例外

  • Article Twenty of GATT (General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade)關稅暨貿易總協定(GATT)第二十條

    • Allows exceptions for measures to protect human, animal or plant life under certain conditions在某些情況下,容許因保護人類、動物或植物措施的例外。

  • ‘Sanitary and Phytosanitary Agreement’食品安全檢驗及動植物防疫檢疫措施協定

    • Allows exceptions to protect health where these are based on science容許基於充分的科學基礎和不充分的科學基礎而暫行的例外措施

    • Allows interim action where there is insufficient science在合理的期間認真的給予嘗試之機會,冀以建立更充分的行動基礎


Wto rules current exceptions1

WTO rules: Current exceptions世界貿易協定:目前之例外(續)

  • Biosafety protocol生物安全議定書

    • Exceptions for Genetically Modified Organisms容許基因改造生物的例外

  • Some payments to producers allowed:

    • ‘Green Box’ measures – payments are production-neutral and/or do not distort trade綠盒措施---產品對國內外貿易均無影響津貼

    • ‘Blue Box’ measures – linked to reduced production藍盒措施---減量生產津貼


Wto rules current exceptions example

WTO rules: Current exceptions – example世界貿易協定:目前之例外(舉例)

Production neutral and/or non-trade distorting

生產中性或非貿易扭曲

Linked to reduced production

連結至減少生產


Overcoming obstacles required changes to wto rules 1 wto 1

Overcoming obstacles:Required changes to WTO rules (1)克服障礙:要求WTO規則的改變(1)

  • Recognition of distinction between production methods 辨認不同生產方法間之差異

  • Permission of total import restrictions under Article Twenty of products from unacceptable production systems在第二十條下,從不被接受的產品系統生產的產品,容許所有進口限制

  • Provision for mandatory labelling by production system生產系統規定強制標籤


Overcoming obstacles required changes to wto rules 2 wto 2

Overcoming obstacles:Required changes to WTO rules (2)克服障礙:要求WTO規則的改變(2)

  • Permission of preferential market access for welfare friendly producers – quotas or preferential tariffs對動物福利友善產品給市場進入優惠許可–配額或優惠關稅

  • Permission for import border tariffs to offset increased cost of welfare measures允許進口關稅以抵銷動物福利措施所增加的成本


Overcoming obstacles required changes to wto rules 3 wto 3

Overcoming obstacles:Required changes to WTO rules (3)克服障礙:要求WTO規則的改變(3)

  • Permission of current export subsidies to be redirected towards welfare promotion (and these subsidies to be excluded from the ‘Agreement on Agriculture’ reductions)最近出口補貼的許可改變動物福利提升走向(且這些補貼被從”農業條約”排除

  • Reclassification of these payments to support welfare as ‘Green Box’ measures將這些付款重新分類以支持動物福利的「綠盒」措施


Export subsidies to be redirected towards welfare promotion

Export subsidies to be redirected towards welfare promotion出口補貼可以提升動物福利


Potential clashes with other laws

Potential clashes with other laws和其他法律的潛在衝突

  • Human Rights law人權法

    • access to premises for inspection purposes如進入房舍檢查

  • Health and Safety law健康和安全法

    • banning goads如禁止刺激棒(電極棒)

  • Environmental law環境法

    • nose rings in sows如豬的鼻鐶

  • Employment law就業法

    • frequency and adequacy of inspection of broiler chickens如檢察肉雞場的頻率和適當性


Potential clashes with other laws1

Potential clashes with other laws和其他法律的潛在衝突

  • Food Safety law食品安全法

    • fasting stock prior to transport to slaughter plant家畜於運輸到屠宰場之前需禁食

  • Planning law計畫法

    • prohibition of free range units如禁止自由飼養單位

  • Product Safety law產品安全法

    • legal requirement to test medicines on animals合法要求以動物測試醫藥產品


Overcoming clashes with other legislation 1 1

Overcoming clashes with other legislation (1)克服障礙:和其他立法的衝突(1)

  • Access to premises for inspection vs. Privacy進入他人產權房舍檢查

    • Specify grounds for changed priorities必須明確說明為何要改變隱私優先權

  • Banning goads vs. Safety of stockpersons禁用電擊棒

    • Legally restrict use of goads to particular species and class of stock; specify the frequency, duration and part of animal on which they can be used合法限制使用之物種,頻率,持續時間和使用在動物之部位

  • Nose rings in sows vs. Environmental protection母豬的鼻鐶

    • Legally enforce pasture rotation, farm sites; provide substrates in indoor systems合法執行牧場輪作和修正農場地點, 合法要求室內養豬系統地面鋪設之材料


Overcoming clashes with other legislation 2 2

Overcoming clashes with other legislation (2)克服障礙:和其他立法的衝突(2)

  • Frequency and adequacy of inspection of broilers vs. Number of working hours檢察肉雞的頻度和適當性

    • Legally restrict bird:stockperson ratio合法限制 [雞:管理員] 二者之比率。

  • Food safety vs. Fasting stock prior to transport to slaughter plant 家畜運到屠宰場前需要禁食

    • Legally restrict duration of fast and legally reduce slaughter line speeds 合法限制禁食時間和減少屠宰線速度


Overcoming clashes with other legislation 3 3

Overcoming clashes with other legislation (3)克服障礙:和其他立法的衝突(3)

  • Prohibition of free range units vs. Planning law自由放養單位的禁止

    • Legally facilitate siting of units away from urban areas; subsidy support; develop less intensive indoor systems合法將設施從市區遷走;支持補貼農民; 減少室內密飼系統

  • Requirement to test medicines on animals vs. Welfare of animals立法要求以動物測試醫藥品

    • Legally required licensing of premises, procedures and personnel立法要求工場, 製程, 與員工執照化

    • Licence application form requires ‘cost:benefit’ justification and ‘three Rs’執照申請時要求[成本:動物福利]合理證明, 和三R做法


Domestic economic pressures

Domestic/economic pressures境內/經濟壓力

  • Insufficient enforcement personnel不足的執法員工

  • Legal expenses合法花費

  • Veterinary surgeon’s responsibility to clients外科獸醫師對客戶的責任

  • Insufficient value of stock?不足的家畜價值


Overcoming obstacles lobbying governments

Overcoming obstacles: Lobbying governments克服障礙:遊說政府

  • Improved animal welfare legislation– more comprehensive, stricter controls提升動物福利立法:更廣泛與更嚴格之控制

  • Increased number of enforcement personnel增加執法之員工數量

  • Farm subsidies for high welfare systems給高動物福利生產系統之農場補貼

  • Provision for legal expenses in prosecutions of welfare cases 規定動物福利起訴案之合法費用

  • Legal provision to improve access to enforcement personnel法律規定以提升執法人員數質


Overcoming obstacles lobbying governments1

Overcoming obstacles: Lobbying governments克服障礙:遊說政府

“Governments act with more or less autonomy depending on how effectively and with what intensity domestic groups make demands on them”

政府之行動具有或多或少之自主性,此乃取決於在地團體對政府要求之強度與效率。

(Peterson and Bomberg 1999)


Overcoming obstacles lobbying governments2

Overcoming obstacles: Lobbying governments克服障礙:遊說政府

  • “In systems of governance that are institutionalised, resource poor and have no ‘government’ yet which often take a strong lead in governing…the capacity of individuals and small groups to influence decisions remains striking’”

    制度化的統治系統裡,資源少且沒有政府*,但通常卻有強大的領導統治力;個人和小團體影響決策的能力依然顯著。

    (Rosenthal 1975)

    • e.g. European Union and “many of the world’s most important international institutions” (Keohane 1998)

      歐盟和”很多其他最重要的國際組織” Keohane 1998


Overcoming obstacles lobbying governments3

Overcoming obstacles: Lobbying governments克服障礙:遊說政府

  • “Political agency at the sub-systematic level requires considerable technical expertise”在非正統層級的政治機構(費註:如非政府組織)需要很多專門技術(Peterson and Bomberg 1999)

  • “A scientific basis is generally regarded as necessary to define such needs and thereby make sensible decisions on animal welfare”以科學基礎來定義動物的生物性需求,並據此建立動物福利的明智決策,已普遍認為是必要的。(Knierim and Jackson 1997)


Overcoming obstacles lobbying governments summary

Overcoming obstacles: Lobbying governments – summary克服障礙:遊說政府-摘要

  • Apply pressure at local authority, government and supranational level 對地方當局,政府和超國家層級施加壓力

  • Join a Non-Governmental Organisation (NGO) with consultative status at international conventions; e.g. WSPA, Greenpeace, WWF加入非政府組織以顧問地位在國際會議;如世界動物保護組織,綠色和平組織,世界野生動物基金會

  • Acquire technical expertise取得技術專業


Conclusions summary

Conclusions/summary結論/摘要

  • Practical enforcement requires attention to detail on site and in court to avoid losing welfare prosecution cases實際的執行要求注意地點細節可避免在法院動物福利起訴之挫敗

  • WTO rules, clashes with other legislation and economic pressures may prevent enforcement of welfare law but there may be legal and practical methods by which these problems may be overcome WTO之規定和其他法律與經濟壓力之衝突可能使動物福利法不得執行,但可能有合法和實用的方式來克服這些問題。

  • Apply pressure at various levels of government, and at supra-state level to improve welfare legislation and enforcement 施加壓力在不同的政府層級, 以及在超國層級, 來提升動物福利法及其執法


Animal protection legislation

Taking an animal welfare case to court:動物福利的案件進入法庭Practical enforcement of statute: Avoiding pitfalls – entry to premises實際法令的執行:避免陷阱 –進入工作場所

  • Do you have the technical expertise to collect evidence – species-specific experience and qualifications?你有專業技術蒐證-物種之特異性經驗和資格嗎?

  • Are you legally permitted to be on the premises and collecting evidence? 你被合法容許在動物飼養場蒐證嗎?

  • On which parts of the premises are you legally permitted?動物飼養場的那個部分你被合法容許?


Practical enforcement of statute avoiding pitfalls entry to premises

Practical enforcement of statute: Avoiding pitfalls – entry to premises實際法令的執行:避免陷阱 –進入工作場所

  • Should you accompany an authorised person?你應陪伴一個被授權者嗎?

  • Should you have written authorisation?你應事先寫好授權書嗎?

  • Should you have given a suitable period of warning?你應先給予適當時間之警告嗎?


Practical enforcement of statute avoiding pitfalls collecting evidence

Practical enforcement of statute:Avoiding pitfalls – collecting evidence實際法令的執行:避免陷阱–收集證據

  • Always have a witness 總是會有證人

  • Write down all your findings; include date and time 寫下所有的發現,包括日期和時間

  • Get your witness to sign it 讓你的證人簽名

  • Copy and keep original records 拷貝和保存原始紀錄


Practical enforcement of statute avoiding pitfalls collecting evidence1

Practical enforcement of statute: Avoiding pitfalls – collecting evidence實際法令的執行:避免陷阱–收集證據

  • Take photographic evidence – video or still取得照相證據 - 錄影或靜態

  • Ensure ‘traceability’ of photographic evidence – dated receipt by developer確保照相證據之可追究性–保有者日期收據

  • Use an accepted method to assess welfare and use it correctly (e.g. condition scoring)使用可接受的方法來評估動物福利和正確使用之(如狀況評分)

  • Look for evidence of尋找證據

    • prolonged welfare problem (e.g. carcasses, chronic lesions)持續存在的福利問題(如屍體,慢性致害)

    • future welfare problem (e.g. sharp objects on pasture)—animals at risk未來可能的福利問題(如在牧場尖銳的物體)-動物處於危險之中


Collecting evidence thin cow or condition score 1

Collecting evidence: ‘Thin cow’ or ‘condition score 1’?收集證據:瘦牛或”狀況評分一”


Practical enforcement of statute avoiding pitfalls taking action

Practical enforcement of statute: Avoiding pitfalls – taking action實際法令的執行:避免陷阱 – 採取行動

  • Ensure you know what legal powers you have確保你要知道你有什麼合法權力

    • e.g. to detain or seize stock如扣留或抓住家畜

  • Do only what is in the welfare interest of the animals只做屬於動物福利利益之事

    • e.g. detention of stock; will they suffer if transported?固定家畜,若運輸牠們是否受苦?

  • Write down your actions with reasons and have the record signed by your witness記下你的行為和理由以及有證人簽名的紀錄

  • If necessary, call for assistance若有必要,要打電話求助


Taking action to move or not to move

Taking action: To move or not to move?採取行動:移動或不移動?


Practical enforcement of statute avoiding pitfalls writing a statement

Practical enforcement of statute: Avoiding pitfalls–writing a statement實際法令的執行:避免陷阱 – 寫一聲明

  • Write a factual account– do an outline immediately撰寫事實 – 立即記下綱要

  • Do not include what others have told you不要記他人告訴你的事

  • Include everything you saw and did包括所有你看到以及你所做的

  • Include dates, times and names of witnesses包括日期時間和證人的名字

  • Cross-reference to photographic evidence and contemporaneous records交互參考相片證據和同時間發生的紀錄


Practical enforcement of statute avoiding pitfalls appearing in court

Practical enforcement of statute:Avoiding pitfalls– appearing in court實際法令的執行:避免陷阱 – 在法庭出現

  • As far as possible report only what is in your statement 盡可能只報告在你的說明內的

  • If you don’t know something say so 若不知道要照實說

  • Answer only the question asked and do not evade it只回答被問的問題且不要躲避

  • Listen to the questions, allow time, and answer in non-technical words 聽問題,要有耐心,且用非專業的字回答問題

  • Keep calm and do not argue 保持冷靜且不爭論


Practical enforcement of statute the expert witness

Practical enforcement of statute: The expert witness實際法令的執行:專家證人(續)

  • One who has, by dint of training and practice, acquired a good knowledge of the science or art concerning that on which his opinion is sought 專家證人是:一個歷經訓練和練習的力量,取得科學或藝術相關知識,他的意見被尋來

  • Gives an opinion as to technical matters on behalf of his client給意見關於技術問題代表他的客戶

  • Is not an advocate and will not allow lawyers to influence the substance of his evidence一個擁護者將不容許律師影響他證據的本質嗎?


Practical enforcement of statute the expert witness cont d

Practical enforcement of statute: The expert witness (cont’d)實際法令的執行:專家證人(續)

  • Identifies strengths and any weaknesses in his client’s case辨認客戶案例的優點和他所有的缺點

  • Aids the court by identifying the relevant facts and interpreting them 協助法院辨認相關事實與其解釋

  • Gives his own, reasoned opinion and must not mislead by omission 提供自己理性之意見且勿疏忽而誤導(法庭)

  • Must be independent, impartial and objective 必須獨立公正和客觀


Practical enforcement of statute the expert witness cont d1

Practical enforcement of statute: The expert witness (cont’d) 實際法令的執行:專家證人(續)

Only agree to be an expert if:只在以下狀況擔任專家

  • The case is within your personal experience, knowledge and competence這案例是在你個人的經驗知識和能力之內

  • The evidence you provide will assist your client你提供的證據將幫助你的客戶


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