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Presentation of Master’s thesis. Simulation and Analysis of Wireless Mesh Network In Smart Grid / Advanced Metering Infrastructure Philip Huynh. Outline of the Talk. Introduction Related work Real-time Smart Grid Meter Data C ollection using Hybrid WiMAX/Wi-Fi Networks

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Presentation of master s thesis

Presentation of Master’s thesis

Simulation and Analysis of Wireless Mesh Network In Smart Grid / Advanced Metering Infrastructure

Philip Huynh


Outline of the talk
Outline of the Talk

  • Introduction

  • Related work

  • Real-time Smart Grid Meter Data Collection using Hybrid WiMAX/Wi-Fi Networks

  • Smart Grid Wireless Infrastructure Planning (SG-WIP) Tool.

  • Simulation Results of SG-SIM

  • Lessons Learned

  • Future Direction

  • Conclusion

Masters Thesis Philip Huynh Spring 2011


Introduction
Introduction

  • What is the Smart Grid?

  • What is the Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI)?

Masters Thesis Philip Huynh Spring 2011


Benefits of real time meter data
Benefits of Real-time Meter Data

  • The need to collect metering data in real-time

    • Save the material usage for the electric power generation by correctly predict the load demand and build the load profile

  • Meter Data Warehousing

Masters Thesis Philip Huynh Spring 2011


Ami wireless mesh network solution
AMI Wireless Mesh Network Solution

  • Low cost installation and maintenance

  • Can deploy on the large service areas: urban, suburb

  • Scalable, high performance technologies

  • Secured standards

Masters Thesis Philip Huynh Spring 2011


Csu ami infrastructure
CSU AMI Infrastructure

Masters Thesis Philip Huynh Spring 2011


Related work
Related Work

  • “Wireless Mesh Networks: A Survey” [AWW05]

    The author presented many open research issues needed to be solved such as scalability, self-organization and self-configuration, security, network integration. The critical factors influencing protocol design were discussed for improvement objectives.

  • “The Nominal Capacity of Wireless Mesh Networks” [JS03]

    The authors shown that for WMNs the throughput of each node decreases as O(1/n), where n is total number of nodes in the network. Moreover, for a given topology and the set of active nodes, the upper bounds on the throughput of any node can be exactly calculated.

  • “Capacity of Grid-Oriented Wireless Mesh Networks” [ANMK08]

    The author presented an analytical framework for determining the nominal capacity of multi-radio multi-channel Wireless Mesh Network (WMN). As the research conclusion, the effects of WMN design parameters such as network topology, network size, routing methods, channel assignment schemes etc. are interlinked and a judicious selection is essential to maximize capacity.

Masters Thesis Philip Huynh Spring 2011


Related work 2
Related Work (2)

  • “Architecture and Algorithms for an IEEE 802.11-based Multi-channel Wireless Mesh Network” [RC05]

    The author proposed a novel multi-channel WMN architecture that effectively addresses the bandwidth problem by fully exploiting non-overlapped radio channels that the IEEE 802.11 standards make available.

  • “Multi-Channel Mesh Networks: Challenges and Protocols” [KSCV06]

    The authors considered the use of multi-channel to improve the throughput of Wireless Mesh Network (WMN). The main challenges were highlighted and two link-layer protocols were presented for utilizing multiple channels

  • “Coverage and capacity of a wireless mesh network” [HWC05]

    The authors proposed a scalable multi-channel ring-based WMN architecture and developed an analytical framework to evaluate the capacity and coverage of such a network.

Masters Thesis Philip Huynh Spring 2011


Related work 3
Related Work (3)

  • “The IEEE 802.11s Extended Service Set Mesh Networking Standard” [CK08]

    The author presented how the developing IEEE 802.11s ESS Mesh Networking Standard draft addresses technical challenges of the pervasive development of wireless mesh networks (WMNs), the efficient allocation of mesh resources (routing and MAC layers), the protection of network resources (security and power savings), and the elimination of spatial bias (congestion control).

  • “An Improved IEEE 802.16 WiMAX Module for the ns-3 Simulator” [IPGT10]

    The authors presented the new features and enhancements that were integrated within the ns-3 WiMAX module. These proposed features can make easier and more realistic the evaluation and design of WiMAX systems.

Masters Thesis Philip Huynh Spring 2011


Challenges approach
Challenges & Approach

  • Challenges in Design and Deployment AMI Network using WMN

    • How to evaluate the network performance: hundred thousands of meter, complicated architecture

    • Design Optimization: trade-off between scalability and performance properties

  • Approach

    • Develop a Network Topology Planning Tool

    • Develop a Network Model for AMI Communication Network

    • Simulate the network model and Analyze the results

  • Goals

    • Develop techniques and tools to evaluate the performance of WMN in AMI communication network.

Masters Thesis Philip Huynh Spring 2011


Hybrid wimax wi fi network model
Hybrid WiMAX/Wi-Fi Network Model

(a)

(b)

Hybrid WiMAX/Wi-Fi Network Model

(a) Example of WiMAX network (WAN)

(b) Example of Wi-Fi mesh network (NAN)

Masters Thesis Philip Huynh Spring 2011


Sg wip tool
SG-WIP Tool

  • A mashup that overlays the wireless infrastructure and GIS data (street light poles, housing units) on the Google Maps

  • Visually planning the Antenna mounting place for the WiMAX/Wi-Fi network

  • Export the network topology as XML file for further research

  • Can be integrated to the network simulator

Masters Thesis Philip Huynh Spring 2011


Sg wip gui
SG-WIP: GUI

GUI includes components: Main Menu, Network Topology Overlay, Google Maps, and Topology Information Panel.

Masters Thesis Philip Huynh Spring 2011


Sg wip navigating topologies
SG-WIP: Navigating Topologies

WAN Grid 10x10, 10 km x 10 km (WxH)

NAN Grid 10x10, 1 km x 1 km (WxH)

Masters Thesis Philip Huynh Spring 2011


Sg wip exporting topology
SG-WIP: Exporting Topology

LAN Square Topology, 100 m x 100 m (WxH)

Exporting the LAN topology as an XML file

Masters Thesis Philip Huynh Spring 2011


Sg wip changing antennae position
SG-WIP: Changing Antennae Position

(a)

(b)

WiMAX base station’s antennae: (a) Before changing, location at (5, 5); (b) After changing, location at (6, 8)

Masters Thesis Philip Huynh Spring 2011


Sg wip tool cont
SG-WIP Tool cont.

  • Google Maps mashup code

Masters Thesis Philip Huynh Spring 2011


Sg sim simulator
SG-SIM Simulator

  • Implement the proposed hybrid WiMAX/Wi-Fi Network Model on NS-3 platform

  • The network simulator NS-3 is

    • Open source project

    • Popular and accepted by network research community

  • Parameters of the Simulator

    • Network types: WAN, MAN, NAN, LAN

    • Number of nodes, Transmission Rate

    • Others: network initialization time,…

Masters Thesis Philip Huynh Spring 2011


Sg sim simulator code
SG-SIM Simulator Code

  • NS-3 simulator code

Masters Thesis Philip Huynh Spring 2011


Simulation experiments
Simulation Experiments

  • Experiment Design Vision

    • Evaluate the performance of AMI Infrastructure

    • Trade-off between Scalability and Performance

  • Confirm to smart meter density analysis (using SG-WIP)

Masters Thesis Philip Huynh Spring 2011


Lan simulation results
LAN Simulation Results

  • Tx packets = Rx packets

  • Total processing delay increases linearly with the number of smart meter

Masters Thesis Philip Huynh Spring 2011


Nan simulation results
NAN Simulation Results

  • Tx packets = Rx packets

  • Total processing delay increases rapidly with the number of mesh routers.

Masters Thesis Philip Huynh Spring 2011


Man simulation results
MAN Simulation Results

  • Tx packets = Rx packets

  • Total processing delay converges to 930 msecs. It caused by 5 msecs fixed frame time in IEEE 802.16 standard.

Masters Thesis Philip Huynh Spring 2011


Man simulation results 2
MAN Simulation Results (2)

Impact on the network performance by aggregating meter data at the gateway

  • Tx packets = Rx packets when number of meter packets < 16

  • Tx packets > Rx packets when number of meter packets >= 16 (caused by UDP packet fragmentation)

  • Total processing delay increases slowly with the number of meter packets

Masters Thesis Philip Huynh Spring 2011


Wan simulation results
WAN Simulation Results

  • Tx packets = Rx packets

  • Total processing delay is independent from the number of base stations (BSs). However, it is affected by the distribution of BSs around the data centers.

Masters Thesis Philip Huynh Spring 2011


Wan simulation results 2
WAN Simulation Results (2)

  • The total processing time was linearly increased with the length of the optical cables.

Masters Thesis Philip Huynh Spring 2011


Lessons learned
Lessons Learned

  • Development of SG-WIP Tool

    • Challenges in testing and debugging source code for Web application (used PHP/JavaScript)

    • GIS Information Acquisition: time consuming process

  • Development of SG-SIM Simulator

    • Found the bug in NS-3 WiMAX module that can affect the simulation results and reported to NS-3 community at: http://www.nsnam.org/bugzilla/show_bug.cgi?id=1025

  • Simulation Experiments in NS-3

    • The initialization phase of wireless networks

Masters Thesis Philip Huynh Spring 2011


Future direction
Future Direction

  • Fully integrate the SG-WIP tool with SG-SIM simulator

  • Improve the antenna placement algorithm

    • Increase availability of wireless networks

  • Database systems for storing the real-time meter data

Masters Thesis Philip Huynh Spring 2011


Conclusion
Conclusion

  • The proposed WiMAX/Wi-Fi WMN can transport the meter data from 160,000 smart meters in the CSU service areas to the data center in one second.

  • The high scalability property of WiMAX/Wi-Fi WMN helps flexibly extend the coverage area of the AMI wireless infrastructure without degrading the network performance.

  • The proposed WiMAX/Wi-Fi infrastructure allows the utilities deploying an AMI wireless communication infrastructure not only at low cost of installation and maintenance but also with high performance, scalability, and security.

Masters Thesis Philip Huynh Spring 2011


Demo

  • Illustrate network topology planning with SG-WIP Tool

    http://scad.eas.uccs.edu/sgwip/wan.html

  • Some demonstrations of SG-SIM simulator

Masters Thesis Philip Huynh Spring 2011


References
References

  • [DoE01] U.S. Department of Energy, “Smart Grid”, <http://www.oe.energy.gov/smartgrid.htm>

  • [DoE02] U.S Department of Energy, “Smart Grid: An Introduction”, <http://www.oe.energy.gov/SmartGridIntroduction.htm>

  • [Wiki01] “Smart Grid”, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Smart_grid>

  • [NIST10] National Institute of Standards and Technology, “NIST Framework and Roadmap for Smart Grid Interoperability Standards, Release 1.0”, Jan. 2010.

  • [NETL08] National Energy Technology Laboratory, white paper “Advanced Metering infrastructure”, February 2008.

  • [Chow09] Edward Chow, Lecture “Secure Smart Grids”, Department of Computer Science, University of Colorado at Colorado Springs, 2009.

  • [IEEE11] IEEE Standard 802 Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications, 2007.

  • [IEEE15] IEEE Standard 802 Part 15.1: Wireless Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications for Personal Area Networks (WPANs), 2005.

  • [IEEE16] IEEE Standard 802 Part 16: Air Interface for Broadband Wireless Access Systems, 2009.

  • [IEEE11s] IEEE, “Draft amendment: ESS mesh networking”, IEEE P802.11s Draft 1.00, November 2006.

  • [Moh01] PrasantMohapatra, Lecture “Wireless Mesh Networks”, Department of Computer Science University of California, Davis.

  • [AWW05] I. F. Akyildiz, X. Wang, and W. Wang, "Wireless Mesh Networks: A Survey," Computer Networks Journal (Elsevier), vol. 47, no. 4, pp. 445-487, Mar. 2005.

  • [Kri01] Srini Krishnamurthy, “Smart AMI Network Solutions Enable the Smart Grid”, ElectricEnergyOnline.com, <http://www.electricenergyonline.com/?page=show_article&mag=55&article=395>

  • [Met01] MetroFi, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MetroFi>

  • [Sky01] SkyPilot, <http://skypilot.trilliantinc.com>

  • [Eka01] EkaNet, <http://www.ekasystems.com/ekanet.htm>

  • [JS03] J. Jangeun and M. L. Sichitiu, “The Nominal Capacity of Wireless Mesh Networks,” in IEEE Wireless Communications Magazine, October 2003, vol. 10 no. 5, pp. 8–14.

  • [RC05] A. Raniwala and T. ckerChiueh, “Architecture and Algorithms for an IEEE 802.11-based Multi-channel Wireless Mesh Network,” in Proceedings of INFOCOM 2005, March 2005, vol. 3, pp. 2223–2234.

  • [ANMK08] Akhtar, Nadeem and Moessner, Klaus, “Capacity of Grid-Oriented Wireless Mesh Networks”,3rd International Conference on Communication Systems Software and Middleware and Workshops, Volumes 1 and 2 . pp. 631-636.

  • [HWC05] Jane-Hwa Huang,   Li-Chun Wang,   Chung-Ju Chang, “Coverage and capacity of a wireless mesh network”, Wireless Networks, Communications and Mobile Computing, 2005 International Conference on, Vol. 1 (2005), pp. 458-463.

  • [CK08] Joseph D. Camp and Edward W. Knightly, “The IEEE 802.11s Extended Service Set Mesh Networking Standard”, IEEE Communications Magazine, Vol. 46, No. 8. (August 2008), pp. 120-126.

  • [KSCV06] P. Kyasanur, J. So, C. Chereddi, and N. H. Vaidya ,”Multi-Channel Mesh Networks: Challenges and Protocols”, in IEEE Wireless Communications, April 2006.

  • [IPGT10] Mohamed Amine Ismail, Giuseppe Piro, Luigi Alfredo Grieco, Thierry Turletti, “An Improved IEEE 802.16 WiMAX Module for the ns-3 Simulator”, Proceedings of SIMUTools Conference, 2010 , March, 2010.

  • [INTL04] Intel Corporation, white paper “Understanding Wi-Fi and WiMAX as Metro-Access Solutions”, 2004.

  • [LLT03] B. Liu, Z. Liu, and D. Towsley, "On the capacity of hybrid wireless networks", in Proceedings of IEEE INFOCOM, Mar. 2003, vol. 2, pp. 1543-1552.

  • [ZR06] S. Zhao and D. Raychaudhuri, "On the Scalability of Hierarchical Hybrid Wireless Networks, Proceedings of the Conference on Information Sciences and Systems (CISS 2006), March 2006, pp. 711-716.

  • [ZSR04] S. Zhao, I. Seskar and D. Raychaudhuri, "Performance and Scalability of Self-Organizing Hierarchical Ad-Hoc Wireless Networks," Proceedings of the IEEE Wireless Communications and Networking Conference (WCNC'04), Atlanta, GA. March 2004, pp. 132-137.

  • [OSI] “OSI Model”, <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OSI_model>

  • [Wimax] WiMAX community, <http://www.wimax.com>

  • [NS3] The Network Simulator Ns-3, <http://www.isi.edu/nsnam/ns/>

  • [NCTU01] NCTUns 6.0 Network Simulator and Emulator, <http://nsl.csie.nctu.edu.tw/nctuns.html>

  • [NCTU02] “The Protocol Developer Manual for the NCTUns 6.0”, Network and System Laboratory, Department of Computer Science, National Chiao Tung University, Taiwan 2010.

  • [HSWL07] S.M. Huang, Y.C. Sung, S.Y. Wang, and Y.B. Lin, “NCTUns Simulation Tool for WiMAX Modeling,” Third Annual International Wireless Internet Conference, October 22 – 24, 2007, Austin, Texas, USA. (EI and ISI indexed, sponsored by ICST, ACM, and EURASIP)

  • [SH06] N.B. Salem and J.P. Hubaux, "Securing Wireless Mesh Networks," Wireless Comm., vol. 13, no. 2, 2006, pp. 50–55.

  • [PSC06] Michael Purvis, Jeffrey Sambells, and Cameron Turner, “Beginning Google Maps Applications with PHP and Ajax”, Apress, 2006.

  • [Goog01] Google Maps JavaScript V3, <http://code.google.com/apis/maps/documentation/javascript/>

Masters Thesis Philip Huynh Spring 2011


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