Streptococcus pneumoniae
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Streptococcus pneumoniae. Adele Ricciardi. Pneumonia - inflammatory condition of the lung. PNEUMONIA CAN BE CAUSED BY: VIRUSES FUNGI BACTERIA. Symptoms Diagnosis. Chest x-ray (in hospitals and clinics) Blood test Sputum culture physical examination CT scan.

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Streptococcus pneumoniae

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Streptococcus pneumoniae

Streptococcus pneumoniae

Adele Ricciardi


Pneumonia inflammatory condition of the lung

Pneumonia-inflammatory condition of the lung

PNEUMONIA CAN BE CAUSED BY:

VIRUSES

FUNGI

BACTERIA


Symptoms diagnosis

Symptoms Diagnosis

  • Chest x-ray (in hospitals and clinics)

  • Blood test

  • Sputum culture

  • physical examination

  • CT scan

  • cough (often produces rust colored mucus)

  • fever and chills

  • shortness of breath

  • chest pain

  • fatigue


Chest x ray

CHEST X-RAY


Streptococcus pneumoniae1

Streptococcus pneumoniae

  • nasopharynx of healthy people

  • Gram-positive bacteria

  • Paired (diplococci) or appear in chains

  • May also infect brain (pneumococcal meningitis) and blood stream (pneumococcus septicemia)

Scanning Electron Micrograph of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Source: CDC/ R. Facklam, J. Carr


Streptococcus pneumoniae

S. pneumoniae was first isolated in 1881,S. pneumoniae was first isolated in 1881,but it still remains the number 1 killer of children under 5 today.but it still remains the number 1 killer of children under 5 today


The toll

The Toll

4 million deaths every year

  • half of these deaths - children under age 5

  • 5,500 children die from pneumonia every day

  • 98% of children who die of pneumonia live in developing countries

  • contributes to the cycle of poverty


S pneumoniae virulence

S. Pneumoniae -Virulence

  • Polysaccharide capsule, > 90 serotypes

    • Resistance to phagocytosis and antibiotics


Different serotypes

Different serotypes


Different serotypes1

Different serotypes


Pneumococci in intimate contact with lung cells show reduced capsular polysaccharide

Pneumococci in intimate contact with lung cells show reduced capsular polysaccharide


Virulence pneumolysin

Virulence- Pneumolysin

  • Toxin

  • Cholesterol-dependent cytolysin

  • Cytokine synthesis

  • Inflammatory response


Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine

Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine

  • Elicits antibodies against the seven most common capsular types

  • Sero-specific

  • Results:

    • Decrease nasopharyngeal colonization

    • Reduce disease of included serotypes

  • Problems:

  • Expensive

  • Alter serotype distribution


  • Use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine is limited to parts of the developing world

    Use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine is limited to parts of the developing world


    Pneumonia will continue to kill

    Pneumonia will continue to kill

    Unless we do something about it…


    Treatment

    Treatment

    • Antibiotics, <$1/dose

      • Amoxicillin – inhibit cell wall formation

      • Erythromycin- inhibit protein synthesis

  • 1 out of 5 children with pneumonia receives antibiotics


  • We can protect from pneumonia

    We can protect from pneumonia


    Pneumonia suffers from scientific neglect

    Pneumonia suffers from scientific neglect


    They may not be excited now but they will be this vaccine deal could save 900 000 lives by 2015

    They may not be excited now...but they will be. This vaccine deal could save900,000 lives by 2015.


    References

    References

    • Bruyn, G.W, Zegers, B. M, R. van Furth. Mechanisms of Host Defense against Infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae. Clinical Infections Diseases 1992;14;251-62.

    • Daniels, Briles, Mirza, Hakasson, Briles. Capsule does not block antibody binding to PspA, a surface virulence protein of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Microbial Pathogenesis. 40;2006;228-233.

    • Alonsodevelasco, Verhuel, Verhoef, Snipe. Atreptococcus pneumoniae: Virulence Factors, Pathogenesis and Vaccines. Microbiological Reviews. Dec. 1995, 591-603.

    • Hsieh, Lee, Shao, Chang, Huang. The Transforming Streptococcus Pneumoniae in the 21st century. Chang Gung Med J Vo. 30 No. 2 2008;31:117-24

    • Hammerschmidt, Wolff, Hocke, Rosseau, Muller, Rohde. Illustration of Pneumonococcal Polysacharide Capsule during adherence and invasion of epithelial cells. Infection and Immunity. 2005; 4653-4667.

    • Kadioglu, Weiser, Paton, Andrew. The role of streptococcus pneumoniae virulence factors in host respiratory colonization and disease. Nature. 2008;6.

    • World Health Organization: The top 10 causes of death. October 2008. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs310/en/index.html[2] Rudan I, Boschi-Pinto C, Biloglav Z, Mulholland K, Campbell H. Epidemiology and etiology of childhood pneumonia. Bull World Health Organ. 2008;86:408–16.

    • World Health Organization. World health statistics 2009. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2008. http://www.who.int/whosis/whostat/EN_WHS09_Full.pdf

    • Rudan I, Boschi-Pinto C, Biloglav Z, Mulholland K, Campbell H. Epidemiology and etiology of childhood pneumonia. Bull World Health Organ. 2008;86:408–16.

    • World Health Organization. World health statistics 2006. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2006. http://www.who.int/whosis/whostat2006.pdf.

    • World Health Organization. World health statistics 2006. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2006. http://www.who.int/whosis/whostat2006.pdf..

    • Rudan I, Boschi-Pinto C, Biloglav Z, Mulholland K, Campbell H. Epidemiology and etiology of childhood pneumonia. Bull World Health Organ. 2008;86:408–16.

    • Rudan I, Tomaskovic L, Boschi-Pinto C, Campbell H. Global estimate of the incidence of clinical pneumonia among children under five years of age. Bull World Health Organ. 2004;82:895–903.


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