Streptococcus pneumoniae
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Streptococcus pneumoniae. Adele Ricciardi. Pneumonia - inflammatory condition of the lung. PNEUMONIA CAN BE CAUSED BY: VIRUSES FUNGI BACTERIA. Symptoms Diagnosis. Chest x-ray (in hospitals and clinics) Blood test Sputum culture physical examination CT scan.

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Streptococcus pneumoniae

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Streptococcus pneumoniae

Adele Ricciardi


Pneumonia-inflammatory condition of the lung

PNEUMONIA CAN BE CAUSED BY:

VIRUSES

FUNGI

BACTERIA


Symptoms Diagnosis

  • Chest x-ray (in hospitals and clinics)

  • Blood test

  • Sputum culture

  • physical examination

  • CT scan

  • cough (often produces rust colored mucus)

  • fever and chills

  • shortness of breath

  • chest pain

  • fatigue


CHEST X-RAY


Streptococcus pneumoniae

  • nasopharynx of healthy people

  • Gram-positive bacteria

  • Paired (diplococci) or appear in chains

  • May also infect brain (pneumococcal meningitis) and blood stream (pneumococcus septicemia)

Scanning Electron Micrograph of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Source: CDC/ R. Facklam, J. Carr


S. pneumoniae was first isolated in 1881,S. pneumoniae was first isolated in 1881,but it still remains the number 1 killer of children under 5 today.but it still remains the number 1 killer of children under 5 today


The Toll

4 million deaths every year

  • half of these deaths - children under age 5

  • 5,500 children die from pneumonia every day

  • 98% of children who die of pneumonia live in developing countries

  • contributes to the cycle of poverty


S. Pneumoniae -Virulence

  • Polysaccharide capsule, > 90 serotypes

    • Resistance to phagocytosis and antibiotics


Different serotypes


Different serotypes


Pneumococci in intimate contact with lung cells show reduced capsular polysaccharide


Virulence- Pneumolysin

  • Toxin

  • Cholesterol-dependent cytolysin

  • Cytokine synthesis

  • Inflammatory response


Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine

  • Elicits antibodies against the seven most common capsular types

  • Sero-specific

  • Results:

    • Decrease nasopharyngeal colonization

    • Reduce disease of included serotypes

  • Problems:

  • Expensive

  • Alter serotype distribution


  • Use of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine is limited to parts of the developing world


    Pneumonia will continue to kill

    Unless we do something about it…


    Treatment

    • Antibiotics, <$1/dose

      • Amoxicillin – inhibit cell wall formation

      • Erythromycin- inhibit protein synthesis

  • 1 out of 5 children with pneumonia receives antibiotics


  • We can protect from pneumonia


    Pneumonia suffers from scientific neglect


    They may not be excited now...but they will be. This vaccine deal could save900,000 lives by 2015.


    References

    • Bruyn, G.W, Zegers, B. M, R. van Furth. Mechanisms of Host Defense against Infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae. Clinical Infections Diseases 1992;14;251-62.

    • Daniels, Briles, Mirza, Hakasson, Briles. Capsule does not block antibody binding to PspA, a surface virulence protein of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Microbial Pathogenesis. 40;2006;228-233.

    • Alonsodevelasco, Verhuel, Verhoef, Snipe. Atreptococcus pneumoniae: Virulence Factors, Pathogenesis and Vaccines. Microbiological Reviews. Dec. 1995, 591-603.

    • Hsieh, Lee, Shao, Chang, Huang. The Transforming Streptococcus Pneumoniae in the 21st century. Chang Gung Med J Vo. 30 No. 2 2008;31:117-24

    • Hammerschmidt, Wolff, Hocke, Rosseau, Muller, Rohde. Illustration of Pneumonococcal Polysacharide Capsule during adherence and invasion of epithelial cells. Infection and Immunity. 2005; 4653-4667.

    • Kadioglu, Weiser, Paton, Andrew. The role of streptococcus pneumoniae virulence factors in host respiratory colonization and disease. Nature. 2008;6.

    • World Health Organization: The top 10 causes of death. October 2008. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs310/en/index.html[2] Rudan I, Boschi-Pinto C, Biloglav Z, Mulholland K, Campbell H. Epidemiology and etiology of childhood pneumonia. Bull World Health Organ. 2008;86:408–16.

    • World Health Organization. World health statistics 2009. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2008. http://www.who.int/whosis/whostat/EN_WHS09_Full.pdf

    • Rudan I, Boschi-Pinto C, Biloglav Z, Mulholland K, Campbell H. Epidemiology and etiology of childhood pneumonia. Bull World Health Organ. 2008;86:408–16.

    • World Health Organization. World health statistics 2006. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2006. http://www.who.int/whosis/whostat2006.pdf.

    • World Health Organization. World health statistics 2006. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2006. http://www.who.int/whosis/whostat2006.pdf..

    • Rudan I, Boschi-Pinto C, Biloglav Z, Mulholland K, Campbell H. Epidemiology and etiology of childhood pneumonia. Bull World Health Organ. 2008;86:408–16.

    • Rudan I, Tomaskovic L, Boschi-Pinto C, Campbell H. Global estimate of the incidence of clinical pneumonia among children under five years of age. Bull World Health Organ. 2004;82:895–903.


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