Streptococcus pneumoniae
Download
1 / 22

Streptococcus pneumoniae - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 140 Views
  • Uploaded on

Streptococcus pneumoniae. Adele Ricciardi. Pneumonia - inflammatory condition of the lung. PNEUMONIA CAN BE CAUSED BY: VIRUSES FUNGI BACTERIA. Symptoms Diagnosis. Chest x-ray (in hospitals and clinics) Blood test Sputum culture physical examination CT scan.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about ' Streptococcus pneumoniae' - hoyt-chan


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Streptococcus pneumoniae
Streptococcus pneumoniae

Adele Ricciardi


Pneumonia inflammatory condition of the lung
Pneumonia-inflammatory condition of the lung

PNEUMONIA CAN BE CAUSED BY:

VIRUSES

FUNGI

BACTERIA


Symptoms diagnosis
Symptoms Diagnosis

  • Chest x-ray (in hospitals and clinics)

  • Blood test

  • Sputum culture

  • physical examination

  • CT scan

  • cough (often produces rust colored mucus)

  • fever and chills

  • shortness of breath

  • chest pain

  • fatigue



Streptococcus pneumoniae1
Streptococcus pneumoniae

  • nasopharynx of healthy people

  • Gram-positive bacteria

  • Paired (diplococci) or appear in chains

  • May also infect brain (pneumococcal meningitis) and blood stream (pneumococcus septicemia)

Scanning Electron Micrograph of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Source: CDC/ R. Facklam, J. Carr


S. pneumoniae was first isolated in 1881,S. pneumoniae was first isolated in 1881,but it still remains the number 1 killer of children under 5 today.but it still remains the number 1 killer of children under 5 today


The toll
The Toll

4 million deaths every year

  • half of these deaths - children under age 5

  • 5,500 children die from pneumonia every day

  • 98% of children who die of pneumonia live in developing countries

  • contributes to the cycle of poverty


S pneumoniae virulence
S. Pneumoniae -Virulence

  • Polysaccharide capsule, > 90 serotypes

    • Resistance to phagocytosis and antibiotics





Virulence pneumolysin
Virulence- Pneumolysin capsular polysaccharide

  • Toxin

  • Cholesterol-dependent cytolysin

  • Cytokine synthesis

  • Inflammatory response


Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine
Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine capsular polysaccharide

  • Elicits antibodies against the seven most common capsular types

  • Sero-specific

  • Results:

    • Decrease nasopharyngeal colonization

    • Reduce disease of included serotypes

  • Problems:

  • Expensive

  • Alter serotype distribution



  • Pneumonia will continue to kill
    Pneumonia will continue to kill the developing world

    Unless we do something about it…


    Treatment
    Treatment the developing world

    • Antibiotics, <$1/dose

      • Amoxicillin – inhibit cell wall formation

      • Erythromycin- inhibit protein synthesis

  • 1 out of 5 children with pneumonia receives antibiotics


  • We can protect from pneumonia
    We can protect from pneumonia the developing world



    They may not be excited now but they will be this vaccine deal could save 900 000 lives by 2015
    They may not be excited now... the developing worldbut they will be. This vaccine deal could save900,000 lives by 2015.


    References
    References the developing world

    • Bruyn, G.W, Zegers, B. M, R. van Furth. Mechanisms of Host Defense against Infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae. Clinical Infections Diseases 1992;14;251-62.

    • Daniels, Briles, Mirza, Hakasson, Briles. Capsule does not block antibody binding to PspA, a surface virulence protein of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Microbial Pathogenesis. 40;2006;228-233.

    • Alonsodevelasco, Verhuel, Verhoef, Snipe. Atreptococcus pneumoniae: Virulence Factors, Pathogenesis and Vaccines. Microbiological Reviews. Dec. 1995, 591-603.

    • Hsieh, Lee, Shao, Chang, Huang. The Transforming Streptococcus Pneumoniae in the 21st century. Chang Gung Med J Vo. 30 No. 2 2008;31:117-24

    • Hammerschmidt, Wolff, Hocke, Rosseau, Muller, Rohde. Illustration of Pneumonococcal Polysacharide Capsule during adherence and invasion of epithelial cells. Infection and Immunity. 2005; 4653-4667.

    • Kadioglu, Weiser, Paton, Andrew. The role of streptococcus pneumoniae virulence factors in host respiratory colonization and disease. Nature. 2008;6.

    • World Health Organization: The top 10 causes of death. October 2008. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs310/en/index.html[2] Rudan I, Boschi-Pinto C, Biloglav Z, Mulholland K, Campbell H. Epidemiology and etiology of childhood pneumonia. Bull World Health Organ. 2008;86:408–16.

    • World Health Organization. World health statistics 2009. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2008. http://www.who.int/whosis/whostat/EN_WHS09_Full.pdf

    • Rudan I, Boschi-Pinto C, Biloglav Z, Mulholland K, Campbell H. Epidemiology and etiology of childhood pneumonia. Bull World Health Organ. 2008;86:408–16.

    • World Health Organization. World health statistics 2006. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2006. http://www.who.int/whosis/whostat2006.pdf.

    • World Health Organization. World health statistics 2006. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2006. http://www.who.int/whosis/whostat2006.pdf..

    • Rudan I, Boschi-Pinto C, Biloglav Z, Mulholland K, Campbell H. Epidemiology and etiology of childhood pneumonia. Bull World Health Organ. 2008;86:408–16.

    • Rudan I, Tomaskovic L, Boschi-Pinto C, Campbell H. Global estimate of the incidence of clinical pneumonia among children under five years of age. Bull World Health Organ. 2004;82:895–903.


    ad