Therapies
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15. Therapies. Therapies. Psychotherapy. Specialized process where trained professional uses psychological methods Differing forms of psychotherapy have differing methods Psychoanalytic: focuses on gaining insight Humanistic: focuses on gaining insight

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Therapies

15

Therapies


Psychotherapy

Therapies

Psychotherapy

  • Specialized process where trained professional uses psychological methods

  • Differing forms of psychotherapy have differing methods

    • Psychoanalytic: focuses on gaining insight

    • Humanistic: focuses on gaining insight

    • Social learning or behavior therapy: uses forms of teaching


Psychotherapy1

Therapies

Psychotherapy

  • Relationship involves power of therapist, emotional patient divulging personal data

  • Ethical Standards

    • Goals of treatment understood/agreed to by client; in best interest of client and society

    • Careful consideration given to alternatives

    • Therapist treats only within limits of expertise


Psychotherapy2

Therapies

Psychotherapy

  • Ethical Standards

    • Effectiveness of treatment must be evaluated

    • Rules and laws of confidentiality followed

    • No abuse of therapist-client relationship

    • Therapist must treat all humans with dignity; respecting all genders, races, sexual orientation, and other sociocultural factors


Therapies1

Therapies

Therapies

  • Psychoanalysis – founded by Freud

    • Root of all problems is in unconscious conflicts

    • Imbalance in id, ego, and superego

    • Conscious insight can resolve conflicts

    • Special therapy techniques may be used

      • Free association

      • Dream interpretation

      • Interpretation of resistance (from vague forms to specific resistance)


Therapies2

Therapies

Therapies

  • Psychoanalysis

    • Transference – therapist-client relationship takes form of client’s relationships with own parents and other authority figures

    • Catharsis – emotional experience or temporary relief from discomfort (some insight gained)

    • Interpersonal psychotherapy for depression

      • Emerged from psychoanalytic tradition

      • Identifies sources of depression and goals for therapy process; very successful outcomes


Therapies3

Therapies

Therapies

  • Humanistic psychology – Carl Rogers

    • People not born with unconscious mind

    • Client-centered therapy or person-centered

      • Emphasis on client’s ability to help self – feels emotionally safe enough to explore own hidden emotions

      • Therapist creates unconditional atmosphere (warmth, genuine positive regard, empathy)

    • Reflection – therapist makes statements to clarify client’s feelings and emotions


Therapies4

Therapies

Therapies

  • Gestalt therapy – founded by F. Perls

    • Humanistic psychotherapy approach

    • Meanings of sensations organized into whole perceptions

    • Goal: create therapeutic experience helping client achieve greater self-awareness

    • Emotional atmosphere: therapists often deal in confrontive, challenging manner necessary to loosen denied feelings


Therapies5

Therapies

Therapies

  • Cognitive-Behavior Therapy (CBT)

    • Abnormal behavior learned from inappropriate experiences through

      • Classical conditioning

      • Operant conditioning

      • Modeling

    • Learning is central goal of therapy; therapist is teacher and client learns adaptive behaviors

    • Cognitions less important


Therapies6

Therapies

Therapies

  • Cognitive-Behavior Therapy (CBT)

    • Fear reduction methods using

      • Graded exposure - series of increasingly fearful situations experienced for gradual mastery

      • Use of modern technology - computer-generated virtual reality

      • Treats obsessive-compulsive disorders when used with other methods


Therapies7

Therapies

Therapies

  • Cognitive-Behavior Therapy (CBT)

    • Social skills training

      • Shaping and positive reinforcement used in role playing

      • Teach use of adaptive skills enough to handle real-life situations

      • Focus on social skill problem of unassertiveness


Therapies8

Therapies

Therapies

  • Cognitive-Behavior Therapy (CBT)

    • Cognitive restructuring

      • Assumes faulty cognitions – maladaptive beliefs, expectations, and thinking

      • Effective for treating anxiety, depression

      • Cannot modify clients’ existing behaviors because of inaccurate ways of thinking about themselves


Therapies9

Therapies

Therapies

  • Cognitive-Behavior Therapy (CBT)

    • Cognitive restructuring

      • Patterns of cognition contributing to emotional distress

  • Selective abstraction

  • Overgeneralization

  • Arbitrary interference

  • Magnification and minimization

  • Personalization

  • Absolutistic thinking


Therapies

Untreated

Self-help booklet

CBT

35

30

25

20

15

10

5

0

Initial

3 wks

3 mos

6 mos

9 mos

Allocation

What works best?


Group and family therapy

Therapies

Group and Family Therapy

  • Group therapy

    • Carried out with groups of 4 to 8 clients; sees experience more effective than individual therapy techniques

      • Receives encouragement from others

      • Sees problem experienced by others

      • Learn from others’ advice

      • Learn new ways to interact with others

      • Format of group therapy varies widely


Group and family therapy1

Therapies

Group and Family Therapy

  • Family therapy

    • Group composed of family members

    • Therapist trained in psychoanalytic, humanistic, and behavioral approaches

    • Beliefs

      • Family issues at root of problem

      • Dynamics of family system need analysis – function of each need to be understood


Group and family therapy2

Therapies

Group and Family Therapy

  • Family therapy

    • Therapists’ goals to resolve problems by improving functioning of family system

      • Give family members insights and correct family dysfunctions

      • Increase warmth and intimacy in family

      • Improve family member communication

      • Help members establish reasonable set of rules for family regulation


Human diversity

Therapies

Human Diversity

  • Ethnic, gender, and sexual issues in mental health

    • U.S. has one of most advanced mental health system in world – does not cover all citizens

      • Hispanics - less outpatient care than whites

      • African Americans – more likely than whites to be committed to psychiatric hospitals (often involuntarily)


Human diversity1

Therapies

Human Diversity

  • Ethnic, gender, and sexual issues

    • U.S. mental health system

      • Fewer women receive mental health services than men

      • Gender of therapist does not appear to influence outcomes

    • Feminist psychotherapy – radical approach

      • Women treated as second-class citizens and Barbie dolls


Human diversity2

Therapies

Human Diversity

  • Goals of Feminist Psychotherapy

    • Advocates equal relationship in therapy

    • Encourage women to see how society limited them to dependent roles

    • Encourage women to become aware of their anger; find constructive ways of expressing

    • Have women define selves as independent

    • Women encouraged to consider own needs

    • Women should develop nontraditional skills


Therapies

Therapies

  • Drug therapy

    • Widely used to treat abnormal behavior

    • Commonly used psychiatric drugs

    • Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)

    • Transcranial stimulation

      • Magnetic field used on frontal cortex

  • Effexor

  • Paxil

  • Prozac

  • Zorloft

  • Xanax

  • Geodon

  • Haldol

  • Navane

  • Risperdal

  • Zyprexa

  • Depakote

  • Epilim


Medical therapies

Therapies

Medical Therapies

  • Psychosurgery

    • Trephining

    • Prefrontal labotomy

    • Modernnames for labotomy surgeries conducted today

      • Capuslotomy

      • Cingulotomy


Therapies

Trephining operations were apparently performed in the Middle Ages to treat abnormal behavior


The end

Therapies

15

The End


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