The great epizootic of 1872
This presentation is the property of its rightful owner.
Sponsored Links
1 / 25

The great epizootic of 1872 PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 74 Views
  • Uploaded on
  • Presentation posted in: General

The great epizootic of 1872. Equine Influenza Devastates America. AMERICA COMES TO A HALT.

Download Presentation

The great epizootic of 1872

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Presentation Transcript


The great epizootic of 1872

The great epizootic of 1872

Equine Influenza Devastates America


America comes to a halt

AMERICA COMES TO A HALT

Imagine a transportation disaster that within 90 days affected every aspect of American transportation, everything Americans took for granted, everything that ensured their safety, every city, town and village where they lived, and left everything in its path under siege.


America ran on horse power

AMERICA RAN ON HORSE POWER

Once upon a time, America derived most of its power from a natural, renewable resource that was roughly as efficient as an automobile engine but did not pollute the air with nitrogen dioxide or suspended particulate matter or carcinogenic hydrocarbons. This power source was versatile. Hooked up to the right devices, it could thresh wheat or saw wood. It was also highly portable — in fact, it propelled itself — and could move either along railroad tracks or independently of them.

THE HORSE


The great epizootic of 1872

9/25-Markham, Ont.

10/1- Toronto

10/10-Detroit

10/14- Buffalo, NY

10/17-Rochester, NY

10/18- Montreal

10/19- Syracuse, NY

10/21- Keene, NH

10/22- NY, NY

10/22- Boston

10/23- Bangor, Me

10/23- Chicago

10/24- Baltimore

10/26- Pontiac, Mi

10/28- Philadelphia

10/28- Wash D.C.

10/29-Columbus, OH

11/1- Newark, De

11/2- Charleston

11/4- Springfield, Ill

11/5-Grand Rapids

11/6- Richmond, Va

11/10- Indianapolis

11/10-Savannah

11/13- Louisville

11/27- New Orleans

12/1-Colorado Springs

12/7-Havana, Cuba

1/26-Albuquerque

A highly contagious strain of equine influenza originated in Toronto, Canada and swept south into the US in late 1872, affecting the entire country within 90 days.  It is estimated that 80%-99% of horses were eventually infected.  Horses were unable to stand in their stables and were seen coughing violently in the streets.


America came to a standstill

AMERICA CAME TO A STANDSTILL

Imagine an equestrian health disaster that crippled all of America, halted the government in Washington DC, stopped the ships in New York, burned Boston to the ground and forced the cavalry to fight the Apaches on foot...


Everyday life was frozen

EVERYDAY LIFE WAS FROZEN

In Philadelphia, streetcar companies suspended service; undelivered freight accumulated at wharves and railroad depots; consumers lacked milk, ice and groceries; saloons lacked beer; work halted at construction sites, brickyards and factories; and city governments curtailed fire protection and garbage collection.


Isolating didn t help

ISOLATING DIDN’T HELP

Physicians struggled to reach patients in a timely manner.  Firemen hitched themselves to wagons. While the mortality rate was relatively low, estimated at only 1%-2% overall, large cities lost many more horses than in rural areas.  Since there were no horses to haul coal out of mines, many railroads went bankrupt as well as thousands of other businesses.

A four story horse hotel to quarantine the animals. The city of Philadelphia reported the loss of 2500. There were 600,000 horses in the state of New York alone, over 90% fell ill.


Newspaper reports

NEWSPAPER REPORTS

Reporting in the New York Times gives an insight into the extent of the outbreak. "There is hardly a public stable in the city which is not affected, while the majority of the valuable horses owned by individuals are for the time being useless to their owners," the paper reported on October 24, 1872. "It is not uncommon along the streets of the city to see horses dragging along with drooping heads and at intervals coughing violently."

Five days later it reported that 95% of all the horses in Rochester, New York, were affected. "Large quantities of freight are accumulating along the Erie Railway in Paterson, New Jersey. The disease is spreading rapidly in Bangor, Maine. All fire department horses in Providence, Rhode Island, are sick."


The fate of the economy was in jeopardy

THE FATE OF THE ECONOMY WAS IN JEOPARDY

By November 1, the Times was discussing the likely cost of the epidemic.

"What will be the effect of even a temporary withdrawal of the horsepower from the nation, is a serious question to contemplate," its correspondent wrote. "Coal cannot be hauled from the mines to run locomotives, farmers cannot market their produce, boats cannot reach their destination on the canals ...”The writer continued: "There seems to be no longer any doubt that the horse disease has reached Chicago and that several hundred animals are already affected. The fatality arising from the epidemic is on the increase in Boston, with deaths averaging 25 to 30 daily."


Great boston fire of 1872

GREAT BOSTON FIRE OF 1872

One of the major casualties of the Great Epizootic was the city of Boston itself. A great fire swept through the industrial section on November 9, ultimately destroying 26 hectares of the city, comprising 776 buildings.


The great epizootic of 1872

The conflagration began at 7:20 p.m. in the basement of a commercial warehouse at 83—87 Summer Street

No one is certain how the fire started.  The water supply in the area was inadequate, and many of the buildings had wooden roofs and were filled with flammable materials. Citizens of Boston were forced to haul water to the location on foot, without the assistance of heavy, faster-moving horses.


Many factors contributed to boston s fire

MANY FACTORS CONTRIBUTED TO BOSTON’S FIRE

  • Buildings were often insured at full value or above value. Over-insurance meant owners had no incentive to build fire-safe buildings. Insurance-related arson was common.

  • Flammable wooden French Mansard roofs were common on most buildings. The fire was able to spread quickly from roof to roof, and flames even leapt across the narrow streets onto other buildings. Flying embers and cinders started fires on even more roofs.

  • Merchants were not taxed for inventory in their attics, therefore offering incentive to stuff their wood attics with flammable goods such as wool, textiles, and paper stocks.

  • Gas supply lines connected to street lamps and used for lighting in buildings could not be shut off promptly. Gas lines exploded and fed the flames.

  • Looters and bystanders interfered with fire fighting efforts.


The lack of horses affected the outcome of the apache war

THE LACK OF HORSES AFFECTED THE OUTCOME OF THE APACHE WAR

Captain John Bourke was one of the most famous soldiers to emerge from that conflict. He served on the staff of General George Crook, who had been described as “the greatest Indian fighter the army ever had.” After the conclusion of his military career, in 1891 Bourke wrote a detailed account of his adventures in Arizona. "There was still another source of discomfort which should not be overlooked. At that time the peculiar disease known as the epizootic made its appearance in the United States and reached Arizona, crippling the resources of the Department in horses and mules; we had to abandon our animals, and take our rations and blanket upon our backs, and do the best we could" Bourke wrote.

The Chiricahua Apache chief, Cochise, was a famous mounted guerrilla.


The panic of 1873

THE PANIC OF 1873

After the end of the Civil War, railroad construction in the United States had been booming. By 1873 railroad mileage had doubled itself since 1869, and this was a cause of rash speculation. Between 1866 and 1873, 35,000 miles of new track were laid across the country. Banks and other industries were putting their money in railroads. While business was expanding the currency was contracting. Paper money had depreciated, and the conditions foreboded a crash. So when the banking firm of Jay Cooke and Company, a firm heavily invested in railroad construction, closed its doors on September 18, 1873, a major economic panic swept the nation.


The great epizootic connection

THE GREAT EPIZOOTIC CONNECTION

The failure of so many railroads, unable to function without the availability of horses, contributed greatly to the speculative collapse. Saddled by so much debt, the lack of revenue during the epidemic made it very difficult for the companies to meet their obligations. The collapse was disastrous for the nation’s economy. Other strong institutions tottered and thousands of people in every rank of life were stricken with absolute ruin.


The effect of the panic

THE EFFECT OF THE PANIC

The blow was felt for years in impaired credit, pressure for payment of dues, the lowering of securities and general dread of even safe enterprises. Savings were exhausted and many banks went under. The New York Stock Exchange closed its doors for ten days. Credit dried up, foreclosures were common. Factories closed, costing thousands of worker’s their jobs. A startling 89 of the country’s 364 railroads crashed into bankruptcy. In two years, a total of 18,000 businesses failed and by 1876, unemployment in this country was at 14 percent.


Supply demand

SUPPLY & DEMAND

THE IMPACT ON PRICES


The great epizootic of 1872

P

QD

DEMAND SCHEDULE

Consumers“willingness to buy”

Price decreases; QD increases

D

$5

$4

$3

$2

$1

$5

4

3

2

1

10

20

35

55

80

0 10 20 35 55 80

Quantity Demanded

…a specifiedtime period

…other things being equal

QD – how much will be purchased at a specific price [& date].


The great epizootic of 1872

.

Law of Supply

Price increases; QS increases

Price decreases; QS decreases

Direct

“S”refers to the“whole supply curve”and refers to what

producers will supply at“different prices”.

“QS”refers to a“point on the curve”and refers to what

producers will supply at a“particular price”.

S

Change in “QS”

1. Price change

2. Movement

(up/down “S” curve)

3. Point to point

(along “S” curve)

P2

P1

Producers want the

highest price possible.

QS1

QS2

Reasons For Upsloping “S” Curve

1. There is increasing opportunity cost if you don’t produce.

2. Current producers produce more [overtime/more shifts]

3. New producers are attracted to the market.


Graphing demand change in qd

P

QD

GRAPHING DEMAND[Change in QD]

Price of Corn

P

$5

4

3

2

1

Connect the Points

CORN

10

20

35

50

70

$5

4

3

2

1

D

o

Q

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

Quantity of Corn


The great epizootic of 1872

P

QS

GRAPHING SUPPLY [Change in QS]

Price of Corn

S

$5

$4

$3

$2

$1

CORN

$5

4

3

2

1

60

50

35

20

5

Plot the Points

Connect the Points

o

Q

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

Quantity of Corn


Banana supply demand

Banana Supply & Demand

P

D1

S1

Crop Freezing

Damage…

S2

P2

Price (per pound)

P1

o

Q2

Q1

Q

Quantity


American flags after 9 11

American Flags After 9-11

D2

S1

D1

P

P2

P1

Price (per flag)

o

Q1

Q2

Q

Patriotism Surge after 9/11…


  • Login