Chapter 8
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Chapter 8. The Cell Cycle. The Life of a Eukaryotic Cell. The ability of organisms to reproduce best distinguishes living things from nonliving matter The continuity of life is based upon the reproduction of cells, or cell division.

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Chapter 8

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Chapter 8

Chapter 8

The Cell Cycle


The life of a eukaryotic cell

The Life of a Eukaryotic Cell

  • The ability of organisms to reproduce best distinguishes living things from nonliving matter

  • The continuity of life is based upon the reproduction of cells, or cell division


Chapter 8

  • In unicellular organisms, division of one cell reproduces the entireorganism

    • Ex. Yeast cells, amoeba

  • Multicellular organisms begin as a single fertilized egg cell that will go through many cycles of division

  • Multicellular organisms depend on cell division for:

    • Development from a fertilized cell

    • Growth

    • Repair

  • Cell division is an integral part of the cell cycle, the life of a cell from formation to its own division


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100 µm

200 µm

20 µm

Reproduction

Growth and development

Tissue renewal


Cell division results in genetically identical daughter cells

Cell division results in genetically identical daughter cells

  • Cells duplicate their genetic material before they divide, ensuring that each daughter cell receives an exact copy of the genetic material, DNA

  • A dividing cell duplicates its DNA, allocates the two copies to opposite ends of the cell, and only then splits into daughter cells


Chromosomes cellular organization of the genetic material

Chromosomes: Cellular Organization of the Genetic Material

  • A cell’s endowment of DNA (its genetic information) is called its genome

  • DNA molecules in a cell are packaged into chromosomes


Chapter 8

  • Every eukaryotic species has a characteristic number of chromosomes in each cell nucleus

  • Ex. Human……. 46

  • Alligator…… 32

  • Amoeba ……. 50

  • Corn………… 20


Chapter 8

  • Somatic (nonreproductive, also called autosomal) cells have two complete sets of chromosomes

  • Gametes (reproductive cells: sperm and eggs) have half as many chromosomes as somatic cells (one complete set)


Chromosomes

Chromosomes

  • Eukaryotic chromosomes consist of chromatin, a complex of DNA and protein (histones) that condenses during cell division

  • Bacteria typically contain one singlecircular chromosome

  • When cell prepare to divide:

  • Chromatinchromosomes

  • Does this by:

  • chromatin duplicates ( DNA replication) creating a complete second copy of the DNA strand

  • strands begin to coil tightly until a rod shaped chromatid is formed


Structure of chromosomes

Structure of Chromosomes


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25 µm


Distribution of chromosomes during cell division

Distribution of Chromosomes During Cell Division

  • In preparation for cell division, DNA is replicated and the chromosomes condense

  • Each duplicated chromosome has two sister chromatids, which separate during cell division

  • The centromere is the narrow “waist” of the duplicated chromosome, where the two chromatids are most closely attached


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0.5 µm

Chromosome

duplication

(including DNA

synthesis)

Centromere

Sister

chromatids

Separation

of sister

chromatids

Centromeres

Sister chromatids


Chapter 8

  • Human and animal chromosomes are categorized as either

    • Sex chromosomes: in humans, X and Y. (Human females=XX; males=XY)

    • Autosomes: all of the other chromosomes

  • Humans have two sex chromosomes and 44autosomes for a total of 46


Chapter 8

  • In sexually reproducing organisms, chromosomes occur in pairs

    • Homologous chromosomes or homologs:

  • Each member of a pair; they are the same size, shape, and carry genes for the same trait, but may have different forms of the gene.


Chapter 8

  • A cell containing homologous pairs is called

  • Diploid = 2N, where N = the number of different kinds of chromosomes.

  • Ex. The 2N, or diploid number of chromosomes for humans = 46, where N=23 in regular body cells (not sperm or egg)

  • Haploid = 1N, where only one member of a pair is present.

  • Ex. 1N or haploid number of chromosomes for humans = 23 (sex cells, sperm and egg)


Karyotype

Karyotype

  • A diagram of all 46 human chromosomes is shown on a karyotype

  • Karyotypes are can be used to diagnose a chromosomal abnormality in a child

  • Mistakes in chromosome number may result in a genetic disorder


Normal human karyotype

Normal Human Karyotype


Chromosomal abnormalities

Chromosomal Abnormalities

  • Deletion: a piece of a chromosome is lost

  • Inversion: a segment flips around and reattaches

  • Translocation: a piece from one chromosomes attaches to another

  • Duplication: a segment doubles itself

  • Nondisjunction: failure of the two chromatids to separate during division resulting in too few or too many chromosomes


Phases of cell cycle

Eukaryotic cell division consists of:

Mitosis, the division of the nucleus

Cytokinesis, the division of the cytoplasm

Gametes are produced by a variation of cell division called meiosis

Meiosis yields nonidentical daughter cells that have only one set of chromosomes, half as many as the parent cell

Phases of Cell Cycle


Phases of the cell cycle

Phases of the Cell Cycle

  • The cell cycle consists of

    • Mitotic (M) phase (mitosis and cytokinesis)

    • Interphase (cell growth and copying of chromosomes in preparation for cell division)

  • Interphase (about 90% of the cell cycle) can be divided into subphases:

    • G1 phase (“first gap”)

    • S phase (“synthesis”)

    • G2 phase (“second gap”)


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INTERPHASE

S

(DNA synthesis)

G1

Mitosis

Cytokinesis

G2

MITOTIC

(M) PHASE


Chapter 8

  • Mitosis is conventionally divided into five phases:

    • Prophase

    • Prometaphase

    • Metaphase

    • Anaphase

    • Telophase

  • Cytokinesis is well underway by latetelophase


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G2 OF INTERPHASE

PROPHASE

PROMETAPHASE


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10 µm

TELOPHASE AND CYTOKINESIS

METAPHASE

ANAPHASE


Chapter 8

Video: Animal Mitosis

Video: Sea Urchin (time lapse)

Animation: Mitosis (All Phases)

Animation: Mitosis Overview

Animation: Late Interphase

Animation: Prophase

Animation: Prometaphase

Animation: Metaphase

Animation: Anaphase

Animation: Telophase


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Chromatin

condensing

Nucleus

10 µm

Chromosomes

Cell plate

Nucleolus

Prometaphase. We

now see discrete chromosomes; each

consists of two identical sister chromatids. Later

in prometaphase, the

nuclear envelope will fragment.

Prophase. The

chromatin is condensing.

The nucleolus is beginning to disappear.

Although not yet visible in the micrograph, the mitotic spindle is starting to form.

Metaphase. The spindle is complete, and the chromosomes, attached to microtubules at their kinetochores, are all at

the metaphase plate.

Telophase. Daughter nuclei are forming. Meanwhile, cytokinesis has started: The cell plate, which will divide the cytoplasm in two, is growing toward the perimeter of the parent cell.

Anaphase. The

chromatids of each chromosome have separated, and the daughter chromosomes are moving to the ends of the cell as their kinetochore micro-

tubules shorten.


Cytokinesis a closer look

Cytokinesis: A Closer Look

  • In animal cells, cytokinesis occurs by a process known as cleavage, forming a cleavage furrow

  • In plant cells, a cell plate forms during cytokinesis

Animation: Cytokinesis


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Cleavage furrow

Daughter cells

Contractile ring of

microfilaments

Cleavage of an animal cell (SEM)


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Vesicles

forming

cell plate

Wall of

parent cell

1 µm

New cell wall

Cell plate

Daughter cells

Cell plate formation in a plant cell (TEM)


The cell cycle control system

The Cell Cycle Control System

  • The sequential events of the cell cycle are directed by a distinct cell cycle control system, which is similar to a clock

  • The clock has specific checkpoints where the cell cycle stops until a go-ahead signal is received


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G1 checkpoint

Control

system

S

G1

G2

M

M checkpoint

G2 checkpoint


Chapter 8

  • For many cells, the G1 checkpoint seems to be the most important one

  • If a cell receives a go-ahead signal at the G1 checkpoint, it will usually complete the S, G2, and M phases and divide

  • If the cell does not receive the go-ahead signal, it will exit the cycle, switching into a nondividing state called the G0 phase


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G0

G1 checkpoint

G1

G1

If a cell does not receive a go-ahead signal at the G1 checkpoint, the cell exits the cell cycle and goes into G0, a nondividing state.

If a cell receives a go-ahead signal at the G1 checkpoint, the cell continues on in the cell cycle.


The cell cycle clock cyclins and cyclin dependent kinases

The Cell Cycle Clock: Cyclins and Cyclin-Dependent Kinases

  • Two types of regulatory proteins are involved in cell cycle control: cyclins and cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks)

  • The activity of cyclins and Cdksfluctuates during the cell cycle


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G1

S

G2

G1

M

M

M

S

G2

MPF activity

Cyclin

Relative concentration

Time

Fluctuation of MPF activity and cyclin concentration

during the cell cycle


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LE12-16b

G1

Cyclin

S

Cdk

M

Degraded

cyclin

G2

accumulation

G2

checkpoint

Cdk

Cyclin is

degraded

Cyclin

MPF

Molecular mechanisms that help regulate the cell cycle


Stop and go signs internal and external signals at the checkpoints

Stop and Go Signs: Internal and External Signals at the Checkpoints

  • An example of an internal signal is that kinetochoresnot attached to spindle microtubules send a molecular signal that delays anaphase

  • Some external signals are growth factors, proteins released by certain cells that stimulate other cells to divide

  • For example, platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) stimulates the division of human fibroblast cells in culture


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Scalpels

Petri

plate

Without PDGF

With PDGF

Without PDGF

With PDGF

10 mm


Chapter 8

  • Another example of external signals is density-dependent inhibition, in which crowded cells stop dividing

  • Most animal cells also exhibit anchorage dependence, in which they must be attached to a substratum in order to divide


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Cells anchor to dish surface and

divide (anchorage dependence).

When cells have formed a complete

single layer, they stop dividing

(density-dependent inhibition).

If some cells are scraped away, the

remaining cells divide to fill the gap and

then stop (density-dependent inhibition).

25 µm

Normal mammalian cells


Cancer

Cancer

  • Cancer cells exhibit neitherdensity-dependent inhibition nor anchorage dependence


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Cancer cells do not exhibit

anchorage dependence

or density-dependent inhibition.

25 µm

Cancer cells


Loss of cell cycle controls in cancer cells

Loss of Cell Cycle Controls in Cancer Cells

  • Cancer cells do not respond normally to the body’s control mechanisms

  • Cancer cells form tumors, masses of abnormal cells within otherwise normal tissue

  • If abnormal cells remain at the original site, the lump is called a benign tumor

  • Malignant tumors invade surrounding tissues and can metastasize, exporting cancer cells to other parts of the body, where they may form secondary tumors


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Lymph

vessel

Tumor

Blood

vessel

Glandular

tissue

Metastatic

tumor

Cancer cell

A small percentage

of cancer cells may

survive and establish

a new tumor in another

part of the body.

Cancer cells invade

neighboring tissue.

A tumor grows from a

single cancer cell.

Cancer cells spread

through lymph and

blood vessels to

other parts of the

body.


Genetic malfunctions related to cancer

Genetic Malfunctions related to Cancer

  • There are three general geneticmalfunctions related to cancer.

  • The regulation of the cell cycle can be likened to a car that runs properly – starts, stops, and steers properly.

  • Breakdown in these systems results in uncontrolled cell division - cancer


Proto oncogenes to oncogenes the gas pedal

Proto-oncogenes to oncogenes (the gas pedal)

  • Proto-oncogenes are growth genes (like gas pedals – make a car go)

  • Mutations in the proto-oncogenes convert them to oncogenes (onco – cancer)

  • Can be likened to a floored gas pedal – out of control speed


Tumor suppressor genes the brake pedal

Tumor suppressor genes (the brake pedal)

  • Tumor suppressor genes code for proteins that act as check points and tend to slow or stop rapid cell division.

  • Mutations in the tumor suppressor genes leads to rapid uncontrolled cell division.

  • Can be likened to a brake pedal that is missing – out of control speed due to an inability to brake.

  • Roughly 1/3 of all cancers are due to a defect in a particular tumor suppressor gene called p53.


Dna repair genes the steering wheel

DNA repair genes (the steering wheel)

  • DNA repair genes scan the double helix and correct mistakes in base pairings (mutations)

  • Deletions in these DNA repair genes can be likened to a car without a steering wheel – cannot correct the swerving out of control.


Xeroderma pigmentosum

XerodermaPigmentosum

  • This condition is due to a faulty DNA repair gene that corrects the mistakes induced from UV light.

  • UV light causes Cytosine to bond with Thymine or itself or thymine to bond to itself .

  • This causes a pinching in of the double helix and is normally corrected.

  • People with XP lack this gene and therefore the enzyme to correct the error – they must avoid exposure to the sun, they tend to freckle very heavily and have a higher rate of skin cancer.


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