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869456

.

  • 1.

  • 2.

  • 3.

  • 4.


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  • (, ,)

    (Cultivation) (Tillage)


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,

3


Soil degradation

( )

()

(Soil Degradation)

Lal et al.,1989


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    • 1.

      • 1.1 (Compaction)

      • 1.2 (Crusting)

      • 1.3 (Accelerated erosion)

      • 1.4 (Hard - setting)

    • 2.

      • 2.1 (Wetness)

      • 2.2 (Drough)

    • 3.

      • 3.1 (subsoil) (Permafrost)

      • 3.2 (Supraoptimal)


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  • 1. (Leaching), ,

  • 2. (Fertility depletion)

  • 3 . sodium (Sodification)

    • (Na+ clay micelle

    • )

  • 4. (Laterization)

  • 5. Toxification Al+3, Mn+3 Heavy metal


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CO2 + H2O H2CO3H+ + HCO3- H+ + H+ + CO32-

cation

H+,Ca++,Mg++

K+, Na+

clay

CO2 ?

NO3,SO42-,PO43- (soil solution)


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  • 1.

  • 2 .

  • ( NO-3,SO42-)

  • 3.Fe Mn Al pH

  • Al

  • 4.Ca , Mg

  • pH

Relative availability

pH


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  • 1.

  • 2.

  • 3.

  • 4.


Agricultural activities

(Agricultural activities)

  • 1.(deforestation)

  • 2.

  • 3.(intensive)

  • (monoculture)

  • 4..

  • 5.


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1.

2. (acid rain)

(Urbanization)

1. (city waste)

2.


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      • ( )

      • (

      • ( )

    • (,)


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:

(media)

  • 1.Stability of organic matter

  • 2.Carbon:Nitrogen Ratio

  • 3.Bulk density

  • 4.Moisture Retention and Aeration

  • 5.Cation Exchange Capacity

  • 6.pH

  • 7.Fertilizer Content

  • :


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1.Supersoil, 2.Perma-Gro All-Purpose, 3.Bandini Potting Soil, 4.Good Earth Potting Soil,5.Vita-Hume Outdoor,

6.Power-O-Pear, 7.Gromulcg Planting Mix, 8.Hyponex Professional Mix

9.Uniguow African Violet Mix,10.Hyponex Professional Mix, 11.Jiffy Mix, 12.Jungle Hrowth House Plant

13.Roger,s Potting Soil Mix, 14.Black Magic House, 15.K-Mart Potting Soil


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  • ~224.9( 70.13 % 2 % 191 (~60%)

    • OM (< 8)

    • (erosion)


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    • (Cation exchang capacity)

    • (Buffer capacityAl, Mn)

    • (Mineralization)


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  • 50 60

  • 50-75 pH


C n ratio

(C/N RATIO)

    • 10 1

    • C/N = 25 1

    • C/N ( ammonia volatilization)

    • C/N 20-40:1

    • C/N 2

      • C/N 100:1

      • C/N 100:1


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  • 1.

  • 2.

  • 3.

  • 4. 2-3 T 50- 60 0 . T

  • 5.

  • 6. C/N


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    • 1. (C/N ratio) 20:1

    • 2. 0.5-0.5-1.0( N P2O5 K2O

    • 3. 35- 40 ()

    • 4. 25- 50 ()

    • 5. (pH) 6.0-7.5

    • 6.


C e c

(C.E.C.)

Clay


Density porosity of soil

(Density & Porosity of Soil)

  • = /

    • 1 .(Bulk Density) ()

    • 2. (Particle Density)

    • ** =+


Total porossity

(Total Porossity)

=


Void ratio

=

(void ratio)


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  • 1.

  • 2.

  • (*** )

  • water -retaining pore capillary pore = ?

  • drainage pore aeration pore = ?


Soil mixtures

(Soil Mixtures)

  • 3.

    • Jiffy Mix

    • Choice mix

    • Ball Growing mix

  • 4., ,

    • 1. Soil - Based Media

      • John Innes Compost(1950)

        • Seed Compost

        • Potting Compost

      • K.U. Soil Mixes

    • 2.Soiless Media

      • U.C. Mixes : sand + peat moss

      • Peat - lite, Cornell mixes( A, B (Foliage plants) (Epiphytic mix)


    Tillage method

    (Tillage Method)

    • +

    • -

    -


    Critical bulk density lal 1986b

    (Critical bulk density)(Lal ,1986b)


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    Humid tropics

    (Humid Tropics)


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        • ( )

        • (

        • ( )

      • (,)

    103


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    • 1.(monocrop)

      • 1.1

      • 1.2

    • 1 (double/multiple crop)

      • 2.1 (Crop rotation)

      • 2.2 (Intercroping) 2

        • (mixed intetcropping)

        • (row interctopping)

      • 2.3 (strip intercropping)

      • 2.4 (Relay intercroping)

      • 2.5 (Alley cropping)


    Soil surface management

    (Soil surface management)


    Strategies to enhance water infiltration

    (Strategies to enhance water infiltration)

    • Rough seedbed

    • Ridgd tillage

    • Tied ridges

    • Terracing

    (Reduce crusting)

    Mulch farming Strip cropping Vertical mulching Deep ploughing

    Cover crops Conservation tillage Cropping sydtems


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    • (Primary tillage)

      • (Moldboard plough) (Disk plough) Tines (Subsoiler) (Chisel Plough)

    • (Secondary tillage)

      • (disk harrow), (disk tiller), (rotary cultivator) (tooth harrow )


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    • 1

        • 60-100

        • 7 1 3-4


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    2


    C oncept of tillage

    (Concept of tillage)

    • (Conventional tillage (CT) Plough - till)

      • ++

    • (Conservation tillage)

      • (No tillage)

      • (Minimum tillage)

      • (Mulch tillage Stubble tillage)

    :

    1.

    2.

    3.

    4.


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    Soil mixtures1

    (Soil Mixtures)

    • 3.

      • Jiffy Mix

      • Choice mix

      • Ball Growing mix

  • 4., ,

    • 1. Soil - Based Media

      • John Innes Compost(1950)

        • Seed Compost

        • Potting Compost

      • K.U. Soil Mixes

    • 2.Soiless Media

      • U.C. Mixes : sand + peat moss

      • Peat - lite, Cornell mixes( A, B (Foliage plants) (Epiphytic mix)


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