Gender-based differences in employment conditions in the GCC context: The case of the United Arab Emirates. Mohammed Al-Waqfi – UAE University Ibrahim M. Abdalla – UAE University Nationalization of the Workforce in the GCC Countries WORKSHOP II New York University Abu Dhabi Institute
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Gender-based differences in employment conditions in the GCC context: The case of the United Arab Emirates
Mohammed Al-Waqfi – UAE University
Ibrahim M. Abdalla – UAE University
Nationalization of the Workforce in the GCC Countries
New York University Abu Dhabi Institute
10-11 April 2010
1. Introduction: Overview of UAE labor market
2. Objectives and methodology
- The Study Objectives
- Research Methodology
- Sources of Data
4. Conclusions and implications
Low proportion of national workers in the total workforce (10%).
Unique labor market structure and labor policy - related to reliance on foreign workers
Segmentation of the labor market by sector (public vs. private) and nationality of workers.
Concentration of the local workforce in the public sector.
Generally, foreign workers hold jobs that citizens do not accept or jobs that require a level of expertise that citizens do not have
Unemployment among national workers.
Wage structure and wage-setting policy.
Low overall labor productivity.
Restricted labor mobility of foreign workers (changed in 2011).
Data is analyzed using two methods:
First, descriptive statistics and application of chi-square tests on cross-tabulations of the data by employee gender and several characteristics of employees. This analysis enable us to assess gender-based differences in employment conditions of workers including job categories, benefits, training received, promotion opportunities, etc.
Second, simple two-equation model of wage determination and access to employment was estimated in accordance with the methodology developed by Neuman and Oaxaca (2004).
PROBIT model: PROBIT(p) = Intercept + BX
Dependent variable = 1 if worker is male, and 0 if worker is female.
Reference group for Citizenship of employee is “Non-citizen”.
Reference group for Public sector is “Private”.
Reference group for Arabic oral skills (worker has oral communication skills in Arabic) is “No”.
Reference group for Test knowledge for job match? is “no”.
Reference group for Education level is “Less than high school”.
Source: Dubai labour market survey (2007)