Adjectives, Adverbs, Prepositions. Huddleston 8-10. Makk Zsófi. Adjectives. Two major functions of adjectives:. Attributive: a HOT day some NEW DVDs this EXCELLENT play LONELY people. Predicative: It’s HOT. These look NEW. I found it EXCELLENT. They seem LONELY.
Two major functions of adjectives:
a HOT day
some NEW DVDs
this EXCELLENT play
These look NEW.
I found it EXCELLENT.
They seem LONELY.
the MAIN speaker
a MERE child
the ONLY problem
my OWN car
He looks CONTENT.
It’s LIABLE to flood.
Inflection for comparative and superlative grade:
Inflection for gradeGradability and gradeThe most central adjectives are gradable:
the CHIEF difficulty
the FEDERAL government
her RIGHT eye
In two different senses:
You should be more OPEN with us.
The door is OPEN.Non-gradable adjectives
Head (adjective) + Dependents
good AT CHESS
grateful FOR YOUR HELP
eager TO HELP
cautious TO EXCESS
A BIT old
glad THAT YOU LIKED IT
TWO DAYS long
unsure WHAT HAD HAPPENED
Certain adjectives mean completely different things with two different word orders:
ONLY BEFORE NOUN:
You have to have the PROPER tools for the job.
That’s not the PROPER way to do it!
The problem was they didn’t have a PROPER place to rehearse.
NEVER BEFORE NOUN:
Does he live in Swansea PROPER or in the suburbs?
Adverbs in relation to adjectives
The majority of adverbs are derived from adjectives
common - ?
rare - ?
It’s VERY good. It’s E…TRE…ELY good.
She …LW…YS wins. She FREQUENTLY wins.
It’ll be over S...ON. It’ll be over SHORTLY:
( Remember: adjectives can function attributively or predicatively)
Adverbs function as Modifier.
Verb: She SPOKE clearly.
Adjective: It’s a remarkably GOOD play.
Adverb: He spoke virtually INAUDIBLY.
Determinative: Nearly ALL copies were sold.
Prep phrase: She is completely IN CONTROL.
Rest of clause: Surprisingly EVERYONE AGREED.
Luckily for me, it rained.
We handled it similarly to the others.
She sang very well.
It won’t end that soon.
We left a bit late.
Meanings concerned with relations in TIME and SPACE
BEFORE the end
IN the garden
ON the desk
OFF the bridge
Prepositions function as HEAD in preposition phrases.
Preposition phrases function as DEPENDENT (Complement or Modifier) to any of the four major parts of speech:
Preposition phrase dependent on:
Verb: She WENT to London. – They ARE in the garden.
Noun: He’s a MAN of principle. – It’s on the WAY to Paris.
Adjective: She’s INTERESTED in politics. – I’m RESPONSIBLE for them.
Adverb: LUCKILY for me, no-one knew. – I saw her LATER in the day.
He emerged [from under the bed].
I’ll stay [until after lunch].
That strikes me [as unfair].
I took him [for dead].
I didn’t know [until recently].
I can’t stay [for long].
It depends [on what she says].
I told her [before she left].
What are you looking at?
It’s something [which I can do without].
This is the book [I was referring to].
He went to the same school as [I went to].
She bought the red house. Which house did she buy?
She is ten years old. How old is she?
John left the scene very slowly. ?
Fred spoke with Susan. ?
Have a nice rest of the Friday evening! (: