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Adjectives, Adverbs, Prepositions. Huddleston 8-10. Makk Zsófi. Adjectives. Two major functions of adjectives:. Attributive: a HOT day some NEW DVDs this EXCELLENT play LONELY people. Predicative: It’s HOT. These look NEW. I found it EXCELLENT. They seem LONELY.

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Adjectives adverbs prepositions

Adjectives, Adverbs, Prepositions

Huddleston 8-10

Makk Zsófi


Adjectives
Adjectives

Two major functions of adjectives:

Attributive:

a HOT day

some NEW DVDs

this EXCELLENT play

LONELY people

Predicative:

It’s HOT.

These look NEW.

I found it EXCELLENT.

They seem LONELY.


Restricted to some functions:

Attributive-only:

the MAIN speaker

a MERE child

the ONLY problem

my OWN car

Never-attributive:

I’m AFRAID.

She’s ASLEEP.

He looks CONTENT.

It’s LIABLE to flood.


Gradability and grade the most central adjectives are gradable

Modification by adverbs of degree:

V…RY good

…U…TE hot

…AT…ER young

T…O old

I…CR…DI…LY bad

 Degree modification

Inflection for comparative and superlative grade:

? ?

? ?

? ?

 Inflection for grade

Gradability and gradeThe most central adjectives are gradable:


Non gradable adjectives

Non-gradable:

ALPHABETICAL order

the CHIEF difficulty

the FEDERAL government

her RIGHT eye

THIRD place

In two different senses:

Gradable:

You should be more OPEN with us.

Non-gradable:

The door is OPEN.

Non-gradable adjectives


The Adjective Phrase (structure)

Adjective Phrase

 Head (adjective) + Dependents

  • Dependents

  • Complements:

    good AT CHESS

    grateful FOR YOUR HELP

    eager TO HELP

  • Modifiers

    VERY bad

    cautious TO EXCESS

    A BIT old

?

MUCH better

glad THAT YOU LIKED IT

TWO DAYS long

unsure WHAT HAD HAPPENED


Adjectives and word order
Adjectives and word order

Certain adjectives mean completely different things with two different word orders:

PROPER

  • Suitable for the purpose or situation

    ONLY BEFORE NOUN:

    You have to have the PROPER tools for the job.

    That’s not the PROPER way to do it!

    The problem was they didn’t have a PROPER place to rehearse.

  • Understood in its most exact meaning

    NEVER BEFORE NOUN:

    Does he live in Swansea PROPER or in the suburbs?


Adverbs
Adverbs

Adverbs in relation to adjectives

The majority of adverbs are derived from adjectives

  • By adding the suffix – ly:

    common - ?

    rare - ?

  • Being replaceble by ones with the –ly suffix:

    It’s VERY good.  It’s E…TRE…ELY good.

    She …LW…YS wins.  She FREQUENTLY wins.

    It’ll be over S...ON.  It’ll be over SHORTLY:


Major difference between adverbs and adjectives
Major difference between adverbs and adjectives

FUNCTION!

( Remember: adjectives can function attributively or predicatively)

Adverbs function as Modifier.

Verb: She SPOKE clearly.

Adjective: It’s a remarkably GOOD play.

Adverb: He spoke virtually INAUDIBLY.

Determinative: Nearly ALL copies were sold.

Prep phrase: She is completely IN CONTROL.

Rest of clause: Surprisingly EVERYONE AGREED.


The adverb phrase structure
The adverb phrase (structure)

  • Complements:

    Luckily for me, it rained.

    We handled it similarly to the others.

  • Modifiers:

    She sang very well.

    It won’t end that soon.

    We left a bit late.

?

?

?


Prepositions
Prepositions

Meanings concerned with relations in TIME and SPACE

AFTER lunch

AT school

BEFORE the end

IN the garden

ON the desk

OFF the bridge


Function of prepositions
Function of prepositions

Prepositions function as HEAD in preposition phrases.

Preposition phrases function as DEPENDENT (Complement or Modifier) to any of the four major parts of speech:

?

Preposition phrase dependent on:

Verb: She WENT to London. – They ARE in the garden.

Noun: He’s a MAN of principle. – It’s on the WAY to Paris.

Adjective: She’s INTERESTED in politics. – I’m RESPONSIBLE for them.

Adverb: LUCKILY for me, no-one knew. – I saw her LATER in the day.


Complements of prepositions

Preposition phrase:

He emerged [from under the bed].

I’ll stay [until after lunch].

Adjective phrase:

That strikes me [as unfair].

I took him [for dead].

Adverb phrase:

I didn’t know [until recently].

I can’t stay [for long].

Clause:

It depends [on what she says].

I told her [before she left].


Preposition stranding

  • Characteristic of relatively INFORMAL style

  • Grammatically CORRECT

What are you looking at?

It’s something [which I can do without].

This is the book [I was referring to].

He went to the same school as [I went to].


Pied piping
„Pied Piping”

  • Named after the Pied Piper of Hamelin

  • More formal register

  • Most visible in cases of WH-fronting of information questions and relative clauses

  • A given focused expression takes an entire phrase with it when it’s „moved”

She bought the red house.  Which house did she buy?

She is ten years old.  How old is she?

John left the scene very slowly.  ?

Fred spoke with Susan.  ?


Thank you for your kind attention
Thank you for your kind attention!

Have a nice rest of the Friday evening! (:


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