Colonial Breeding. Occurs species feed in intraspecific flocks on unpredictable foods Fish-eaters: herons, seabirds Aerial insectivores: bee-eaters, swifts, swallows Some seed-eaters: weaverbirds Key benefit = locating food through information center No other feeding benefits.
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Resource defense polyandry in jacanas, Spotted Sandpipers, a few Gruiformes
Now polyandry (rather than polygyny) threshold model applies, females defend territories that attract multiple males, males care for eggs and young