Psychology  Work Today

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Will You Stay In Your First Job More Than Two Years?. Two-thirds of graduating seniors do not expect to remain with their first employer more than two years. Why Is Employee Selection Important?. Improper matching of the person and job leads to personal unhappiness and poor performanceIt takes a lo

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Psychology Work Today

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1. Psychology & Work Today Employee Selection Principles and Techniques Chapter 3

2. Will You Stay In Your First Job More Than Two Years? Two-thirds of graduating seniors do not expect to remain with their first employer more than two years

3. Why Is Employee Selection Important? Improper matching of the person and job leads to personal unhappiness and poor performance It takes a lot of time, energy, and other resources to compensate for a poor selection decision

4. What Factors Are Involved In the Pre-Selection Process? Internal Preferences for work Expectations about the organization External Type of recruiting Amount of information available

5. Organizational Entry Finding the right amount of challenge for you is the most important factor

6. What Are You Looking For In A Job? Challenging work High salary Job security Stock options Good working hours Good working conditions Compatible co-workers Respect from one’s boss Opportunity to learn new skills Fair/loyal supervisor Being asked for your opinion Help with personal problems

7. What’s Most Important In A Job For College Students? Challenging work is most important Also important Training for advancement Compatible colleagues and Supervisors Appropriate salary Stock options Being able to dress casually

8. Is Organizational Size Important? 75% would prefer to work in large companies 25% would prefer to work in small companies

9. What Factors Cause Employee Preferences To Change? Level of education Economic conditions Clash between expectations and reality

10. Recruitment Issues Sources that potential employees use to find out about jobs Successful characteristics of the company recruiter Recruiting on college campuses Type of information to provide job applicants

11. Recruiting Sources Available To Organizations Online search services Help-wanted ads Current employee referrals Employment agencies Professional associations Job fairs Outplacement agencies Campus interviews

12. What Are Characteristics Of Successful Recruiters? Personal characteristics Smiling & Nodding Eye contact & Empathy Thoughtfulness & Warmth Competence

13. Successful Recruiters Provide information about the company Solicit information about the applicant Answer applicant’s questions Stick to relevant topics

14. Unstructured Interviews Are Often Invalid Selection Tools Untrained interviewers First impressions are hard to overcome Applicants perceived to be more qualified receive more time Important issues often not discussed Applicants and interviewers may be guilty of trying to mislead the other

15. What Are The Advantages Of A Realistic Job Preview? Acquaints the prospective employee with both positive and negative aspects of the job Correlates positively with job satisfaction job performance reduced turnover

16. What Are The Steps In The Selection Process? Job analysis Profile of worker qualifications Identification of selection techniques Recruitment procedures appropriate to desired selection ratio and expense Selection and classification Evaluation of techniques to ensure validity, fair employment practices, and no adverse impact

17. What Constitutes “Fair Employment Practices”? Conformity to EEOC regulations 1964 & 1991 Civil Rights Acts Equal opportunities in employment for all, regardless of race, religion, sex, or national origin And no ... Adverse impact on minority or protected groups Discriminatory questions in interviews or on application blanks Reverse discrimination

18. How do You Determine Adverse Impact? 4/5s rule Selection ratio for minority group may be no less than 80% of that of the majority group

19. Possible Disadvantages Of Equal Opportunity Programs Perception of reverse discrimination Which groups are most positive toward affirmative action? Women Blacks Hispanics Stigmatizing of those hired

20. What Groups Are Protected Against Discrimination? Groups based on Sex Race National Origin Religion Workers over 40 Workers with disabilities Vietnam veterans Other forms of discrimination sexual orientation physical attractiveness genetic factors

21. What’s The Purpose Of Job & Work Analysis? Job analysis The study of a job to describe in specific terms the nature of the component tasks performed by the workers Work analysis The study of specific tasks and worker skills that can be transferred from one job to another

22. Job Analysis - A Basis For Organizational Programs Recruitment Selection and classification Training Performance evaluation Job design Workspace design Safety

23. Conducting Job & Work Analysis Refer to previously conducted analyses U.S. Department of Labor’s Occupational Information Network (O*NET) Interviews Questionnaires Observation Activity logs Critical incidents

24. What Information Does The O*NET Provide On Each Job? Person requirements Person characteristics Experience requirements Job requirements Labor market

25. Who Should Conduct The Job Analysis Interview? Subject matter experts Workers Supervisors Trained HR personnel

26. Two Questionnaires Used In Job Analysis Unstructured questionnaire open-end approach Structured questionnaire Position Analysis Questionnaire (PAQ) 194 job elements organized into six categories information input mental processes work output relationships with other persons job context other job activities & conditions

27. Direct Observation As A Method Of Job Analysis Beware People may behave differently when they are being watched Hawthorne Effect Analyst should be unobtrusive Sample should be representative Electronic monitoring is a possibility privacy issues

28. Some Analysts Use Systematic Activity Logs Employees and supervisors maintain detailed written records of their activities during a specified time

29. What Is The Critical-Incidents Technique? A means of identifying specific activities or behaviors that lead to desirable or undesirable consequences on the job

30. Five Employee Selection Techniques Biographical information forms Interviews References Assessment centers Psychological tests (Chapter 4)

31. What Is “Biodata”? Collecting biographical information is a common method of job selection Assumes that past experiences and personal traits can predict work behavior & success May be paper or online home computer kiosks recruiting stations computer generated phone screening

32. Two Major Techniques For Collecting Biodata Application blanks Biographical inventory

33. Application Blanks It’s crucial to determine what information to request Each question must be correlated with job success How honest is the response? Use follow-up interviews Check employers & references

34. Biographical Inventory It’s a more systematized form of application blank Longer and in greater detail Assumes on-the-job behavior is related to biodata Each item must be researched and validated Properly developed biographical inventories show high predictive value

35. What Are Criticisms Of Biographical Inventories? Considerable research is required to develop time money resources Faking is possible Many managers are unaware of their benefits

36. First Impressions Are Important Key variables Perceived attractiveness, sociability, & skill at self-promotion Verbal and Non-verbal cues Maintaining eye contact, smiling, leaning toward the interviewer, & friendly hand gestures Low pitched voice with vocal inflections

37. Interviews Are Susceptible To Impression Management Acting deliberately to make a good impression, to present oneself in the most positive way Ingratiation Self-promotion

38. What Are The Three Types of Interviews? Unstructured interview Structured interview Situational interview

39. Characteristics Of The Unstructured Interview Format and questions asked are left to the discretion of the interviewer Criticisms Lack of consistency in assessing candidates Low validity for predicting job performance Interviewer training can improve usefulness

40. Characteristics Of The Structured Interview Uses a predetermined list of questions asked of every candidate Printed form Applicant’s responses recorded “Elaborate application blank” Results are greatly improved over unstructured interviews Structured interviews can be as valid as cognitive ability tests

41. Characteristics Of The Situational Interview Focus is not on personal characteristics or work experience but on the behaviors needed for successful performance Development Prepare list of critical incidents Determine benchmarks for scoring the incidents Rephrase incidents as interview questions Used to select workers for semi-skilled and skilled factory jobs, sales, & first line supervisors

42. The Initial Interview May Be Conducted On-line Saves time for managers Personal interviews are granted only for those applicants who complete and pass the online screening Home Depot uses computer kiosks for applicants Psychological tests Video providing realistic job preview

43. What Three Factors Can Bias An Interviewer’s Judgment? Prior information Favorable prior information - Interviewers more encouraging, understanding, approving, & friendly more time selling the company & providing job information less time soliciting information Contrast effect Personal prejudices Halo effect

44. Controlling For Interviewer Bias Training Structured interview

45. References And Letters Of Recommendation Often paint a false picture of the applicant Positive bias Fear of lawsuits Sometimes useful in validating resume and application blank information

46. What Is An Assessment Center? Method of selection / training Involves a simulated job situation in which candidates deal with actual problems Situational testing Developed by German army to select officer candidates (1920s) Also used by OSS during WWII

47. How Does An Assessment Center Work? Usually involve 6-12 candidates Evaluated through a series of exercises over several days In-basket technique Leaderless group discussions

48. Advantages of Assessment Centers Can be highly valid predictor of job success (i.e., managerial) May be a more equitable way of evaluating managerial talent But ... Interpersonal skills count strongly, and active and forceful participants are rewarded Affects participant’s self concept

49. Who Should Evaluate In Assessment Centers?* Peer assessments The best predictors of job advancement The behavior of the candidates directly influenced the behaviors of their peers Are trained manager-assessors really necessary?

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