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Viral Disease. Slackers Facts by Mike Ori. Disclaimer. The information represents my understanding only so errors and omissions are probably rampant. It has not been vetted or reviewed by faculty. The source is our class notes.

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Viral disease

Viral Disease

Slackers Facts by Mike Ori


Disclaimer
Disclaimer

The information represents my understanding only so errors and omissions are probably rampant. It has not been vetted or reviewed by faculty. The source is our class notes.

The document can mostly be used forward and backward. I tried to mark questionable stuff with (?).

If you want it to look pretty, steal some crayons and go to town.

Finally…

If you’re a gunner, buck up and do your own work.










In which portion of the cell orthomyxovirus replicate and why?






The virus causes destruction of ciliated respiratory epithelium in the upper respiratory tract. This degrades the mucociliary elevator and prevents efficient clearance of bacteria.

General immune system down regulation occurs as the influenza infection is controlled.



Antigenic shift has substantially altered the virus to reduce its antigenic similarity to previous strains and to allow it to replicate in both the upper and lower respiratory tract.



An similar pandemic occurred within their lifetime. swine origin.

They do not have as robust an immune system and cannot generate as much of a cytokine storm



Currently the strain’s H antigen interact with swine origin.sialic acid alpha 2,3 gal receptors which are situated in the lower respiratory tract. Thus it take larger exposures to transmit the disease.


What would occur if H5N1 swine origin.reassorts in swine



Swine upper respiratory epithelium contains avian and human influenza?sialic a2,3 gal and sialic a2,6 gal receptors thus they can be easily coninfected with both human and avian virus. This allows nature to tinker.

Idle goddesses are the devils workshop.


What will happen if H5N1 avian and human influenza?reassorts or mutates to efficiently infect both upper and lower respiratory epithelium.


The potential for significant mortality avian and human influenza?



New human type A strain avian and human influenza?

Causing serious illness

Easily spreads person to person


What diseases are caused by avian and human influenza?paramyxovirus


Mumps avian and human influenza?

Parainfluenza and croup

Rubeola (5 day measles)

Respiratory syncitial virus


Describe the avian and human influenza?paramyxovirus spikes


Combined H and N on single spike ( avian and human influenza?para=next to hence H is para to N)

Fusion (F) protein on second spike


What is a avian and human influenza?syncitia and why do they form


A avian and human influenza?syncitia is a giant cell that forms by fusion of multiple cells. Paramyxovirus tends to form syncitia through the action of F protein deposited on cell surfaces.


Distinguish avian and human influenza?parainfluenza from Respiratory syncitial virus


Parainfluenza avian and human influenza? = bronchitis

RSV = bronchiolitis


Describe RSV epidemiology avian and human influenza?



Describe RSV immunity affects small children < 1


Immunity is incomplete. Repeated affects small children < 1 infections occur with lessened severity but its unclear if there is an immune basis.


RSV diagnosis affects small children < 1


Immunofluorescence of nasal swabs affects small children < 1


RSV prophylaxis affects small children < 1



Its flu if? indicated in high risk children


It looks like a cold but also has indicated in high risk children

Myalgia/arthralgia

Fever


Adenovirus structure indicated in high risk children


Linear dsDNA indicated in high risk children


Adenovirus disease indicated in high risk children


URI particularly in children indicated in high risk children


Adenovirus persistence indicated in high risk children


DNA virus can establish latent/carrier state indicated in high risk children


What viruses are responsible for the common cold? indicated in high risk children


Rhinovirus indicated in high risk children

Coronavirus

Reovirus


What is a exanthema? indicated in high risk children


Circle the correct answer indicated in high risk children

Choose wisely grasshopper

A widespread rash

An out of date national anthem.

Last years skirt lengths


List the common indicated in high risk childrenexanthem viruses and families




Mumps time course This avoids a rash of shots.


16 day incubation This avoids a rash of shots.

7 day clinical disease


Mumps complications This avoids a rash of shots.


Orchitis This avoids a rash of shots.

Meningitis

Encephalitis


Rubeola (Measles) time course This avoids a rash of shots.


10 day incubation This avoids a rash of shots.

5 days of rash

Koplik spots 1-2 days prior to exanthema


Rubeola epidemiology This avoids a rash of shots.



What is unique about during the winter and spring.morbillivirusspikes


Even though they are during the winter and spring.paramyxoviridae they lack N activity. Thus they have H and F spikes as opposed to H/N and F typical of other paramyxoviridae.


What are during the winter and spring.koplik spots


Small bluish during the winter and spring.yellow spots that appear on the oral mucosa in advance of the rubeola rash


Rubeola complications during the winter and spring.


Post infectious encephalitis in near term during the winter and spring.

SSPE (encephalitis) in 2-10 years


Rubeola during the winter and spring.sx


Progressive rash extending from head to toe. during the winter and spring.

High fever

Delirium

Photophobia

Conjunctivitis


Rubella time course during the winter and spring.


Incubation period 16 days during the winter and spring.

Exanthema for 3 days

Contagious -7 to +7 from rash


Rubella epidemiology during the winter and spring.




No, MMR is a live vaccine and rubella is a springtransplacental infective agent. Reversion of rubella to a virulent form could lead to congenital rubella in the child.



Cataracts spring

Cardiac defects

Reticuloendothelial defects (liver, spleen, thrombocytes)

Mental retardation



All enter the respiratory tract to cause springviremia before moving to their tropic tissue



Mumps – salivary glands, testes, ovary, CNS? spring

Measles – skin and Lymph nodes?

Rubella – skin and lymph nodes?


What is agent for springErythemaInfectiosum?





What is the alternative name for appearance. ErythemaInfectiosum?


Fifth disease appearance.



Roseola a likely diagnosis?infantum


Describe the structure of a likely diagnosis?Enteroviruses


They are small naked icosahedral virus with ssRNA (+) in a likely diagnosis?picornaviridae

Pico = small

rna = RNA


What is the transmission path for a likely diagnosis?enterovirus


Fecal-oral a likely diagnosis?


Describe the stability of a likely diagnosis?enterovirus


They are very stable and are resistant to acidic pH, detergents, disinfectants, and alcohol


Describe the epidemiology of detergents, disinfectants, and alcoholenterovirus


Summer and fall in temperate climes. Year round in the tropics. Transmitted by direct or indirect fecal-oral contact. Vectors occasionally spread the virus.


What are the tropics. Transmitted by direct or indirect fecal-oral contact. Vectors occasionally spread the virus.picornaviridae genus?


Polio tropics. Transmitted by direct or indirect fecal-oral contact. Vectors occasionally spread the virus.

Echo

Rhino

Coxsackie

Hep A

(PERCH)


What are the three possible outcomes of polio infection tropics. Transmitted by direct or indirect fecal-oral contact. Vectors occasionally spread the virus.


Abortive poliomyelitis tropics. Transmitted by direct or indirect fecal-oral contact. Vectors occasionally spread the virus.

Aseptic meningitis

Paralytic poliomyelitis


What is the entry point tissue for polio tropics. Transmitted by direct or indirect fecal-oral contact. Vectors occasionally spread the virus.


Oropharynx tropics. Transmitted by direct or indirect fecal-oral contact. Vectors occasionally spread the virus.. Resulting viruses swallowed and infect intestines. Then infect CNS


What vaccines are available for polio tropics. Transmitted by direct or indirect fecal-oral contact. Vectors occasionally spread the virus.


Salk = killed tropics. Transmitted by direct or indirect fecal-oral contact. Vectors occasionally spread the virus.

Sabin = Attenuated


Polio diagnostic tropics. Transmitted by direct or indirect fecal-oral contact. Vectors occasionally spread the virus.


Viral visualization tropics. Transmitted by direct or indirect fecal-oral contact. Vectors occasionally spread the virus.

Ab titer


What is the potential contagious period for polio tropics. Transmitted by direct or indirect fecal-oral contact. Vectors occasionally spread the virus.


Intestinal shedding can occur for weeks tropics. Transmitted by direct or indirect fecal-oral contact. Vectors occasionally spread the virus.even in the face of effective immune response


What is the structure of tropics. Transmitted by direct or indirect fecal-oral contact. Vectors occasionally spread the virus.papillomavirus


dsDNA circular. Naked icosahedral tropics. Transmitted by direct or indirect fecal-oral contact. Vectors occasionally spread the virus.


How many genotypes of HPV are known tropics. Transmitted by direct or indirect fecal-oral contact. Vectors occasionally spread the virus.


70+ tropics. Transmitted by direct or indirect fecal-oral contact. Vectors occasionally spread the virus.


What is the transformation potential of HPV tropics. Transmitted by direct or indirect fecal-oral contact. Vectors occasionally spread the virus.


It’s a DNA virus and thus can be stabilized in the cell. Higher stain numbers are more oncogenic (?). Malignant strains seem to insert DNA into host genome.


HPV Transmission Routes Higher stain numbers are more oncogenic (?). Malignant strains seem to insert DNA into host genome.


Occupational exposure (meat packers) Higher stain numbers are more oncogenic (?). Malignant strains seem to insert DNA into host genome.

Sexual contact

Public showers/swimming pools (suspected)

Perinatally


List the diseases associated with common HPV genotypes Higher stain numbers are more oncogenic (?). Malignant strains seem to insert DNA into host genome.


1,2 – common warts Higher stain numbers are more oncogenic (?). Malignant strains seem to insert DNA into host genome.

7 – meat handler warts

6,11 – benign genital warts

16,18,31,45 – warty lesions with malignant potential in the nethers


What percent of females in US are HPV positive? Higher stain numbers are more oncogenic (?). Malignant strains seem to insert DNA into host genome.


20%-60% Higher stain numbers are more oncogenic (?). Malignant strains seem to insert DNA into host genome.


Where does HPV replicate? Higher stain numbers are more oncogenic (?). Malignant strains seem to insert DNA into host genome.


Nucleus – it’s a DNA virus Higher stain numbers are more oncogenic (?). Malignant strains seem to insert DNA into host genome.


How is HPV typically diagnosed in females Higher stain numbers are more oncogenic (?). Malignant strains seem to insert DNA into host genome.


Detected by cytoplasmic vacuolization and nuclear enlargement on routine pap smear


What is enlargement on routine pap smearcryotherapy


Removing HPV infected epithelium with extremely cold substances such are liquid nitrogen


Describe PML substances such are liquid nitrogen


Degenerative brain disease that causes focal areas of substances such are liquid nitrogendemyelination surrounded by bizarre astrocytes.


What is the virus of PML? substances such are liquid nitrogen


The JC substances such are liquid nitrogenPolyomavirus


What is a likely substances such are liquid nitrogencomorbidity in PML PT?


HIV substances such are liquid nitrogen


A bone marrow transplant patient presents a few weeks after discharge with hemorrhagic cystitis. What is the likely agent


BK discharge with hemorrhagic cystitis. What is the likely agentpolyomavirus


What is the tropic tissue for BK virus? discharge with hemorrhagic cystitis. What is the likely agent


Kidney discharge with hemorrhagic cystitis. What is the likely agent


What are the general discharge with hemorrhagic cystitis. What is the likely agentsx of arbovirus


Encephalitis discharge with hemorrhagic cystitis. What is the likely agent

Hemorrhagic fever


What is the characteristic of an discharge with hemorrhagic cystitis. What is the likely agentarbovirus?



What is the family for mosquitoes or ticks.arboviruses involving horses?


Togavirus mosquitoes or ticks.


What commonly mosquitoes or ticks.togavirus is commonly vaccinated for?


Rubella mosquitoes or ticks.


What is the distribution of western, eastern and St mosquitoes or ticks.Loius encephalitis


Western – western us mosquitoes or ticks.

Eastern – Eastern US

St Louis – central US?


Describe a typical WEE,EEE victim mosquitoes or ticks.



What is the age range for St presentLoius and West Nile Virus


St presentLoius > 40

West Nile > 50





World wide. present

Middle east, far east, Africa, Caribbean



Aedes presentaegypti







Birds present



Mosquitoes present


West presentnilesx



Describe the morphology of presentbunyavirus




Bunyavirus present

Encephalitis with seizures

In north central mid west states



Bunyavirus present




Hantavirus USsx and mortality


Fulminant US respiratory disease with > 50% mortality.


Reovirus USarbovirus disease



Arenavirus US morphology



Arenavirus US unique characteristics


Ambisense US (+/-) RNA

Presence of host cell ribosomes within virus


Filovirus US morphology



Filovirus USsx



Famous USfilovirus diseases


Marburg and USebola



Rabies US




What is the initial UStx for rabies



Describe the attenuated virus.timecourse of rabies




Prodrom attenuated virus.

Acute neurologic phase

Coma

Death



100% attenuated virus.

(only a few exceptions are known)




What is the often aggressive and disorienteddumb phase of rabies infection




The vaccine is a killed attenuated vaccine so people receiving it are double protected form conversion but the protection does not last long so repeated vaccine would be necessary. Rabies is uncommon with proper precautions


Rotavirus family receiving it are double protected form conversion but the protection does not last long so repeated vaccine would be necessary. Rabies is uncommon with proper precautions


Reoviridae receiving it are double protected form conversion but the protection does not last long so repeated vaccine would be necessary. Rabies is uncommon with proper precautions


Rotavirus structure receiving it are double protected form conversion but the protection does not last long so repeated vaccine would be necessary. Rabies is uncommon with proper precautions


Small wheel shaped ssRNA (+). 1 segments receiving it are double protected form conversion but the protection does not last long so repeated vaccine would be necessary. Rabies is uncommon with proper precautions


What are the segmented virus receiving it are double protected form conversion but the protection does not last long so repeated vaccine would be necessary. Rabies is uncommon with proper precautions


Bunya receiving it are double protected form conversion but the protection does not last long so repeated vaccine would be necessary. Rabies is uncommon with proper precautions

Orthomyxo

Arena

Reo

(BOAR)


What is the epidemiology of rotavirus receiving it are double protected form conversion but the protection does not last long so repeated vaccine would be necessary. Rabies is uncommon with proper precautions


Infection during cooler months in children < 2 years old. Highly contagious and spreads rapidly in institutions and families


Describe Rotavirus disease Highly contagious and spreads rapidly in institutions and families


1-3 day incubation period followed by abrupt onset of vomiting. Subsequent diarrhea lasting 5-8 days. Virus shedding for 2-12 days


Rotavirus prevention vomiting. Subsequent diarrhea lasting 5-8 days. Virus shedding for 2-12 days


Hand washing. Vaccine in development. vomiting. Subsequent diarrhea lasting 5-8 days. Virus shedding for 2-12 days


Rotavirus death factors and numbers vomiting. Subsequent diarrhea lasting 5-8 days. Virus shedding for 2-12 days


Malnutrition and vomiting. Subsequent diarrhea lasting 5-8 days. Virus shedding for 2-12 daysimmunodeficient children

600K die worldwide


Norwalkvirus vomiting. Subsequent diarrhea lasting 5-8 days. Virus shedding for 2-12 days family


Calcivirus vomiting. Subsequent diarrhea lasting 5-8 days. Virus shedding for 2-12 days


Calcivirus vomiting. Subsequent diarrhea lasting 5-8 days. Virus shedding for 2-12 days morphology


Naked small round ssRNA (+) vomiting. Subsequent diarrhea lasting 5-8 days. Virus shedding for 2-12 days


Norwalk disease vomiting. Subsequent diarrhea lasting 5-8 days. Virus shedding for 2-12 days


1-2 day incubation vomiting. Subsequent diarrhea lasting 5-8 days. Virus shedding for 2-12 days

1-2 day vomiting and diarrhea


Other diarrhea agents vomiting. Subsequent diarrhea lasting 5-8 days. Virus shedding for 2-12 days


Astrovirus vomiting. Subsequent diarrhea lasting 5-8 days. Virus shedding for 2-12 days (star shaped naked)

Adenovirus


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