COST OF COMMUNITY SERVICES (COCS) STUDIES . For each land use category:ResidentialCommercial/IndustrialFarmland/Open Space 1. Calculate Revenues by Category2. Calculate Expenditures by Category . CALCULATE RATIO. Expenditure/ Revenue
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1. COST OF COMMUNITY SERVICES STUDIES OHIO Land Use Conference
September 14, 2007
Allen Prindle, Otterbein College
Brian Williams, American Farmland Trust
Randy Pore, Knox County Regional Planning
2. COST OF COMMUNITY SERVICES (COCS) STUDIES For each land use category:
1. Calculate Revenues by Category
2. Calculate Expenditures by Category
3. CALCULATE RATIO Expenditure/ Revenue
“For each dollar of tax revenue collected by this land use category, what expenditures were paid?”
4. COCS Studies: Are a Snapshot
Do not predict future
Are not Site specific
Inform Local Decision Makers
Create Awareness in Community
Make better, more-informed decisions
5. MORE INFORMATION:
Farmland Information Center, COCS Fact Sheet, Aug 2006, http://www.farmlandinfo.org/documents/27757/COCS_8-06.pdf
Ohio State University Extension COCS Fact Sheet CDFS-1060-98:
6. Conventional wisdom: Farmland is open space.
Developing it will generate tax revenue
7. Reality New housing adds tax revenue
New housing requires water, sewer, roads, police & fire protection, schools, etc. – and adds to the size and cost of government
8. Reality: Agriculture adds revenue to the local economy and also adds tax revenue
Agriculture requires very little in costly public services
Agriculture is a bargain
9. Cows don’t go to school
10. Cost of Community Services COCS studies enable us to weigh the benefits and costs of different land uses.
There’s no hard-and-fast rules on the findings; the studies are tools – information that local officials need to consider as they make land-use decisions
11. Clark County COCS Residential land required $1.11 in public services for every $1 paid in property taxes
Commercial land required 38 cents in services for $1 in property taxes
Farmland needed just 30 cents in service for every $1 in property taxes
– American Farmland Trust, 2003
12. National averages 29 cents in commercial/industrial services for every dollar in taxes
37 cents for farmland and open space
$1.19 for residential
Agriculture subsidizes subdivisions
13. Fiscal analysis Many local governments do their own fiscal-impact analysis; others hire consultants
But few of these studies look at working lands and open space
14. AFT studies Of 125 COCS in 125 communities since 1986, AFT conducted 42
5 of 6 in Ohio:
-- Clark, Butler and Knox counties
-- Madison Village and Madison Township in Lake County (now updating 1993 studies)
(Portage County Planning did Shalersville Township study)
15. Long-term impact If a local government establishes an easement-purchase program, the public dollars put into that program could change the tax-dollar/service ratio for farmland
But farmers in Carroll County, Md., still consider their easement program a good deal
16. Our counties need growth Agriculture is economic development – we need to ensure it can grow
Our cities and towns need growth and redevelopment
COCS helps us balance those needs and determine what growth goes where
17. Farmland goes here
18. New homes go here
19. Knox County, Ohio Cost of Community Services Study
20. Knox County Population (2006) Total 58,561
Mount Vernon City 15,908
Fredericktown Village 2,475
Gambier Village 2,042
Centerburg Village 1,486
Danville Village 1,084
Martinsburg Village 188
Gann Village 140
Balance of Knox County 35,222
21. Knox County Population Average Annual Rate of Change from 2000 to 2006 Total 1.2%
Mount Vernon City 0.2%
Fredericktown Village -0.3%
Gambier Village 0.2%
Centerburg Village 0.4%
Danville Village -0.3%
Martinsburg Village 0.3%
Gann Village 0.1%
Balance of Knox County 1.9%
22. Balance of Knox County 1.9% Townships with greater than 1.9% Average Annual Change
23. COCS Study Questions? When was it done?
Who decided to do it?
What were the numbers in Knox County?
How has it been used since completion?
24. When was it done? The time periods investigated included two overlapping fiscal years:
2001 (Jan 1 to Dec 31, 2001)
For all services except public education
2002 (July 1, 2001 to June 30, 2002)
For public education
25. Who decided to do it? Farmland Preservation Committee of RPC
26. What were the numbers in Knox County?
27. How has it been used since completion? Incorporated into the update to the Knox County Comprehensive Plan
Helped create funds for OAEPP
Started Township Revenue Project
Helped start Exurban Committee
28. Knox County Comprehensive Plan January 2006 Chapter 5 Local Planning
A Balance of land uses, including agricultural and open lands, is needed to supply adequate revenue to pay for community services. Without such a balance, new residential development is likely to create the need for tax increases.
Differential property tax programs are justified as a way to provide an incentive to keep land open and in active agricultural use. Even with a reduced assessed value, agricultural properties contribute a surplus of revenue to pay for public services for residents of Knox County.
Strategies to retain land in agricultural should be a good long-term investment.
Land Use Goal
“Protect Knox County’s Farmland and Rural Character”
29. OAEPP Funds On Thursday, January 15, 2004, the Knox County Commissioners voted to take $100,000 from the County’s general fund revenues to support Knox County’s applications to the Ohio Agriculture Easement Purchase Program in 2004. This makes Knox County one of a small handful of counties around the state that has earmarked specific funds to support farmland preservation.
30. Improved Regulations Subdivision Regulations
Large Lot Review
Date of “Original Tract”
Major Subdivision Floodplain Designation
Stream Bank Buffer
31. Township Revenue Project
32. Township Revenue Project
33. EXURBAN DEVELOPMENT??? Low-density residential development that occurs beyond incorporated city limits. Typically on lots form 10-40 acres in size, but sometimes smaller.
38. Exurban Development – Lots 1-10 acres. 5,321 parcels (with a house)-17,446 acres
39. Exurban Development - Lots 10-40 acres. 1,655 parcels (with a house) – 33,568 acres
40. All Rural Residential Lots 1-40 acres. 6,976 parcels - 51,014 acres (15 % of the total land area of Knox County)
41. Apple Valley Lake Total Residential Parcels – 6,658 Vacant – 4,256
42. Perspective….. Just think, all of the homes constructed as a result of Exurban Development that has occurred in Knox County, consuming over 51,000 acres of land, could have fit in the space of one Apple Valley and consumed only 1/17 of the land area.
43. $$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$$ The “Cost of Community Services Study” performed by the American Farmland Trust said that rural residential land consumes 5% more revenue than it generates in Knox County, (4 ¼ million dollars annually when the study was completed 4 years ago).